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 Most employees in organizations today engage in one deviant behaviour or the other which violates organizational norms and threatens the well-being of their organization and such deviants include; theft, fraud, lateness to work, putting up laiz-affair attitude, wasting raw materials during production, making long unnecessary calls while on duty, destroying properties belonging to their organization and co-worker and so on. Every employee has personal goal, aspiration and expectations which they wish to achieve while working in their organization and when these goals, aspirations and expectations are not met, they (employees) tend to believe that they are not being treated well by their organization. Employees tend to make “psychological contracts” with their employers (organizations) right form the first day they are employed. Once these goals and expectations of employees are not met, the (employees) perceive a breach in psychological contract with the organization (Chiu & Peng, 2008). Employees may resort to workplace deviant behaviours as one of the ways to express their grievances to either the organization or coworkers for the unfair treatment to they received. One of the critics is that workers most time perceive that they are treated in a bad manner even when they are not. Workplace deviance may arise when the worker's perceive that their organization has mistreated them in some manner. Workplace deviance may be viewed as a form of negative reciprocity. This is consistence with the proverbial maxims, which states thus, "an eye for an eye", or “tooth for tat’;, a concept which almost all employees strongly believe is a suitable approach to most situations in their organizations (Anderson & Pearson, 1999). Workplace deviance is a phenomenon which occurs in several organizations not withstanding the age, levels/position, of an employee. Research has suggested that manager’s behaviour influences employees’ ethical decision making and organizational behaviour of employees who perceive being treated respectfully and valued, such individuals are less likely to resort to workplace deviance. Griffin and O’ Leary-Kelly, (2004) defined workplace deviance as a voluntary behaviour that violates institutional norms and in doing so threatens the well-being of the organization. Workplace deviance could be described as a deliberation or intentional desire to cause harm to an organization. Robinson and Benneth, (1995) defined workplace deviance as a voluntary behaviour by employees that violate significant company norms, policies or rules and threatens the well being of the organization. Employees who perceive treatment they receive from their organization as “unfair” tend retaliate to their organization by engaging in workplace deviance. Employees see workplace deviance as a means of pay back, or balancing inequity by themselves in a way of causing harm to their organization. These deviant workplace behaviours include; withholding effort, Coworker backstabbing, withholding information, stealing, acting rudely to co-workers and management, lateness to work, wasting raw-materials during production, involving in demonstration, tarnishing rather than protect organizational image outside, sabotage, destroying organizational properties and so on. Workplace deviance include those behaviours that are directed at the organization which includes, theft, sabotage, lateness to work, making calls while on duty, putting little effort into work (duty) and so on. Other deviant behaviours directed at individuals in the workplace like supervisors, co-workers management include; playing pranks, acting rudely, arguing during duties, stealing individual (co-workers) properties, fighting and so on. Workplace deviance could be also addressed as uncivil behaviours which are characteristically rude, discourteous, displaying a lack of respect for others. Bennet and Robison (2000), classified workplace deviance into four types which include; product deviance, property deviance, political deviance and personal aggression. Product deviance is a type of deviant behaviours are directed to the production department of an organization with examples like; making unnecessary phone calls during work time, intentionally slow working, telling stories during work period being wasteful with raw material and so on. Property deviance is a type of deviant behaviour is directed at destroying Organizational property, stealing properties belonging to the organization and co- worker. Political deviance occurs when managers and supervisors asks employees to engage in overtime work and also additional duties beyond their job description of such employee not considering such employees plight. This behaviour shows management and supervisors’ willingness to have a full political control over subordinates during and after work period. Most times supervisors direct employees to engage in overtime or extra work time without payment or any form of compensation. These behaviours include, fighting with employees, sexual harassment, verbal aggression, that brings insult to supervisors, management and co-workers. Managers and supervisors most time misuse their power or authority on their sub-ordinate which may trigger negative reaction or emotions in the workplace deviance and ultimately lead to personal aggressive behaviour from such employee. Robinson and Bennet, (1995) also identified two types of workplace deviance which is based on deviance target, they include; interpersonal and organizational deviants. Pulich and Tourigny, (2004) supports that interpersonal deviances are misconduct behaviours targeted at specific stakeholders such as the supervisors and co-workers. Other examples of the interpersonal deviance include, gossiping about co-workers, blaming co-workers, backstabbing (Pulich & Tourigny, 2004). The second type of the work place deviant based on the deviance target is the Organizational deviance which workers direct or aim at the Organizational property or production. Employees engage in this type of deviant behaviours which include, stealing Organizational properties, withholding efforts and information, wasting raw materials during production and so on (Robinson & Benneth, 1995). Tangirala and Ramannjam, (2008) described employee “silence” as form of Organizational deviance behaviour in which that employee intentionally or unintentionally withhold any type of information that might be useful to the organization due to the injustice or unfair treatment they receive from their organization. Recently, due to the development in information and technology in the workplace, a new deviance known as “cyber loafing” had emerged because it is carried out on the internet. During work hours, employees engage in non work related task instead of work related task on the internet using the computer and their mobile phones. Example is employees who chat in the social network such as face book, twitter, badoo, nimbuzz and so on (Zoghbi, 2006).

Project detailsContents
Number of Pages45 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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