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Unhealthy Risk-Taking Behaviours Among Secondary School Students in Ogbadibo Local Government Area of Benue State

CHAPTER ONE

 Introduction Background to the Study Unhealthy risk-taking behaviours among young people have over the years been a major concern both to the government and the adult population. This issue has attracted a lot of attention so much so that programmes are being initiated both by governmental and non-governmental organization with a view to curbing this menace. The emergence of exploratory and risk-taking behaviours in adolescents is often described as a normal developmental phenomenon marked by the onset of major changes in biological, psychological, and social processes (Stanton, Spirito, Donaldson, & Boergers, 2003). Lynn (1997) noted that, since adolescents need to take risks as a normal part of growing up, parents should assist adolescents to find healthy opportunities to do so. Healthy risk-taking, is not only important in itself, but can help prevent unhealthy risk-taking behaviour. World Health Organization-WHO (1948) defined health as a ‘‘state of complete physical, mental, social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’’ (p.13). In others words, one can be free from disease or infirmity and yet be unhealthy. Formation of healthy lifestyle is an essential precondition for health and well-being for realization of a person’s full potentials. Hornby (2000) defined healthy as having good health and not likely to become ill. Healthy describes a person who is rarely ill or things that are good for one’s health. Risk is a concept that denotes potential negative impact to an asset or some characteristics of value that may arise from present process or future event. Risk is often used synonymously with the probability of a known loss (Ilona, 2006). According to Proton (1997), healthy risk-taking behaviour is a positive tool in an adolescent’s life for discovering and consolidating his or her identity. While unhealthy risk-taking behaviour involves action or behaviour that could result into negative outcome, behaviour which the person performed may not consider risky, but that can have negative consequences. For example, a child playing with a gun may not consider this dangerous as he or she may have seen people on TV doing this or even an adult known to them, but clearly it is potentially dangerous (Ben-zur & Reshef-kfir, 2003). Reber (1995) defined risk as an action that jeopardizes something of value. The object that is threatened may be physical, social or culturally valued psychological entity such as self-esteem. For example, when an individual involves oneself in an action that results to unpleasant outcome, it is referred to as risk-taking. Proto (1997) stated that risk-taking behaviours can be group into healthy and unhealthy. Healthy risk-taking behaviours include traveling, making new friends, participating in sports, development of artistic skill, making good grade in school, constructive contrition to the community, participating in religious activities while unhealthy risk-taking behaviours include violence, cigarette smoking, reckless driving, alcoholism, or substance abuse, jumping from height, rebelliousness, unprotected sexual intercourse, fighting, carrying weapons with intent to harm, running into traffic, running away from home and eating disorders. Examples of eating disorders are anorexia, nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating. Anorexia nervosa is a complicated psychological illness, most common in female adolescents. There is minimal food intake leading to loss of weight and sometimes, death from starvation. Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder involving repeated episodes of uncontrolled consumption of large quantities of food in a short time while binge eating is (binge-purge syndrome) self- induced vomiting after meals (Roper, 1989). Inherent in all these activities is the possibility of failure. Porto further maintained that all adolescent take risk as a normal part of growing up, and that risk-taking is the tool an adolescent uses to define and develop his or her identity. In all, healthy risk-taking behaviour is a valuable experience, but adolescents’ risk-taking only becomes negative when when the risks are dangerous to health and well-being. Eaton et al (2005) asserted that risk-taking whether healthy or unhealthy, is simply part of the adolescent’s struggle to test out an identity by providing self-definition and separation from others, including parents. The present study will focus on the following types of unhealthy risk-taking behaviours eating disorder behaviours, violent behaviours, unprotected sexual behaviour (activities), substance abuse behaviours and delinquent behaviours.

Project detailsContents
 
Number of Pages36 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
ReferenceReference
QuestionnaireQuestionnaire
AppendixAppendix
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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