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TREATMENT AND VALORISATION OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT (POME) THROUGH PRODUCTION OF MICROBIAL BIOMASS

CHAPTER ONE 

INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
 1.1 Introduction 
Waste generation is an unavoidable component of our daily life. Almost all human activities generate waste. Wastes can be grouped based on the source into domestic, municipal, agricultural and industrial. Agriculture and municipal sectors are the main contributors to the wastes produced (Ganiyu and Oloke, 2012). Recent trends in food production have led to an increase in the rate of production of food processing by-products and wastes. Generation of waste and by-products during processing of food is unavoidable and the amount and kind of waste produced, which consists primarily of the organic residue of processed raw materials, can scarcely be altered if the quality of the finished product is to remain consistent. The changing of economic, social, political and cultural values of the world has challenged many countries to effectively utilize industrial biotechnology for a friendly way of disposing wastes (Zvidzai et al., 2007). Instead of treating these by-products as waste and land filling them, many food firms are turning them into useful products. One of the most important environmental problems of the agro-food sector is the high organic content of its effluents and residues, which implies a high treatment cost. However, these effluents and residues have a great number of organic compounds with a high nutritional value (proteins, oils, sugars, vitamins, colourants and antioxidants) (Tramantzas et al., 2002). The main by-product in palm oil production is a liquid sludge waste known as palm oil mill effluent (POME) (Vairappan and Yen, 2008). Due to the organic composition of POME, it is identified as one of the world’s most polluting wastewater with very high average values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) of about 50000mg/l and 25000mg/l respectively(Ahmed, 2009). The cheapest way of discharging of POME is to release it into the river, since POME is a non toxic oily waste. But discharging of the effluent into water bodies causes depletion of oxygen in water and results in aquatic pollution (Hwang et al., 1978). POME is a complex substrate comprising of unhydrolysed materials with high concentration of compounds such as proteins, fats, starch, cellulose, hemicelluloses and organic acids (Ahmed, 2009). According to Wu et al. (2009a), POME may be reused as fermentation medium for the production of value added products such as microbial biomass, which could be used as single cell protein because of its high concentration of carbohydrate, protein, lipid, nitrogenous compounds and minerals. Valorization, which is a relatively new concept in the field of industrial residues management and promoting the principle of sustainable development, holds immense potential in deriving fine chemicals, micronutrients, enzymes and precious metabolites via chemical and biotechnological processes that have industrial value (Federici et al., 2009).

Project detailsContents
 
Number of Pages106 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
ReferenceReference
QuestionnaireQuestionnaire
AppendixAppendix
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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