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: Advertising as adopted by American Marketing Association is “any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor.” The history of Advertising can be traced back to the very beginning of recorded history, when the archaeologist dug up signs of various events and offers. Again, the Romans painted walls to announce gladiator fights, and the Phoenicians were said to have painted pictures of their wares on large rocks along parade routes. In Greece during the golden age, town criers announced the sale of cattle, craft items and cosmetics as well. For instance an early signing commercial goes like this; “for eyes that are shining, for checks like the dawn, for beauty that lasts after the girlhood is gone, for prices in reason, the woman who knows will buy her cosmetics from Aesclyptos.” However, modern advertising is entirely different from the early efforts. Advertising is used mostly by commercial firms, nonprofit organizations, professional and social agencies to announce their activities. The correlation between advertising and consumers’ perception of products as well as organization sales volume has always been a major argument. Some schools of thoughts argued that modern firms create their own demand through advertising so that the concept of consumer sovereignty was outdated while others argued that although advertising clearly influences consumers’ choice among a different brands of similar commodities, there is little evidence that consumers’ desire to consume major classes of goods are primarily determined by advertising. Recently, there has been argument concerning advertising, benefits and values, which is essential in positioning products. While some believe that product positioning owe much to benefits and values of consumer, others believe advertising play more important role in this. Lipsy (1993:279) quoted Galbraith J. K. of Harvard University as advocating that: “Firms render the future unpredictable by actively manipulating the market demand…To guard against unexpected decline in demand, corporations spend vast sum on advertising to allow them sell what they want to produce rather than what consumer wants to buy and at the same time decide not to produce some product that consumers would like to consume.” Though Lipsy (1993;280) agreed that advertising is to some extent, taste making and certainly shift demand among similar products, he however, posits that “the allocation of resources among major product group – but possible not among different brands of one basic product owe more to tastes and value of consumers that it does to advertising and related activities”.

Project detailsContents
Number of Pages124 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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