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The need for change through performance management.

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION 
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 
Change is a re-occurring demand in our daily existence and takes place from time to time as innovations and inventions are introduced to meet up with current trends. According to Stewart (1996) the future is uncertain and any particular or specific change will generate other changes. It is well known and widely accepted that organizations and business enterprises like banks, insurance companies, among others are in existence to produce, make profits and develop. A change is any deviation from a normal situation and its management requires specific skills. There is nothing as certain as change. Cardinal Newman once said “to live is to change, to live a long life is to change many times”. We experience several changes in or course of development from childhood to adulthood. Such changes are accepted as challenges and opportunities. According to Megginson et al (1989:55) change is the third term of the famous adage that nothing is certain but death and taxes. Everyday people experience significant change in their lives and careers. These changes may involve accepting a promotion at work, transferring to new office or even starting a new family. The way people react to a change differs. One will likely welcome changes which provides one with options and resist changes that give you no choice. Change and change management are concepts that have come to assume greater importance in the discussions of the executive of most companies. This is partly born out of the fact that the only thing certain in life is change. Mokikan (1996:96). In the view of this it is important that individuals, groups and corporate bodies must consciously plan for managing change if the rewards from it are to be maximized. Since change is something we have to live with, the better we are able to manage its introduction and consequences the better for all. If an organisation refused change such organisation will be changed, many organisation have collapsed because they refused to change or manage change when it occurred. Forces of change are also known as change drivers or change initiators. They can either be external or internal. The external drivers are those forces that are outside the control of management has little control over them; they have a greater effect on organizational change. No organization can operate in vacuum. An organization must interact with its external environment if it’s to survive. The organization’s physical, financial and human resources are obtained from outside and the clients and customers for the organization’s products and services are also there. Internal change forces are pressures for change, which come from within the organization for which are reasonable measure of control. These may include the appointment of new chief executive officer, new organization objectives, managerial policies, technologies, employees’ attitudes, operation start ups, business relocation, mergers and acquisitions. Both external and internal forces for change are not found in isolation. They are interrelated more often than not; external change drivers create internal change drivers, which lead to organisation change. If change is important, the more important is its management, when change is properly managed, the result can be deadly because of the possibilities of resistance among people. To successful manage change one needs to understand basic concepts and strategies to build commitment and acceptance to change in all levels of the organization. Roger plant in his work titled “managing change and making it stick” observed that there is a wide range of typical causes of resistance. These are rarely simple causes and effect situations, and resistance is usually a complex mix of historic, factual and emotional issues, which are not always easy to disentangle. He listed the following as some of those most frequent sources of resistance to change and unwillingness to engage in new behaviour. 1. Fear of the unknown 2. Lack of information 3. Misinformation 4. Historical factors 5. Threat to core skills and competence 6. Threat to power base 7. No perceived benefits 8. Low trust organizational climate 9. Poor relationship 10. Fear of failure 11. Fear of looking stupid 12. Reluctance to experiment 13. Custom bound 14. Reluctance to let go 15. Strong peer group norms. Managing change is a persistent challenge which must be met in order to promote progressive organizational performance. It is a personal management skill which involves the whole range of management task of planning, operating, controlling, management development, communicating, bargaining etc. change is a process and not a decision to act. And since this is so, one of the key factors for successful management of change is preempting the problem one may have to monitor the market environment and that is doing environmental scanning. Competition can come from the areas you least expect. As one scans the environment there is need to analyze the consequences.

Project detailsContents
 
Number of Pages94 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
ReferenceReference
QuestionnaireQuestionnaire
AppendixAppendix
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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