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TEAM APPROACH TO THE MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE IN THE NIGERIAN MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATIONS_ STRATEGIES, CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION 
 1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
 Work is a group-based activity and if organization is to function effectively it requires good teamwork. Katzenback and Smith (1993) define a team as a small number of people with complementary skills who work toward common goals for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. A team depends on its own members to provide leadership and direction. Teams can also be organized as departments. Bailey-Scudamore, (1991) opine that many organizations face a volatile environment in which change is nearly constant and if they are to survive and prosper, they need to adapt to change quickly and effectively. Human resources are almost always at the heart of an effective response system; this is because effective leaders work with subordinates and co-workers to create visions and strategies as means to achieve the organization’s goals. Rapid change can put employee under a great deal of stress, and unless the organization develops support mechanisms to keep it manageable both the firm and employees may pay a heavy price (Gomez-Mejia, et al, 2001). The question of organizational change is central to all kinds of organizations. It is the way in which organizations thrive, grow and stabilize rather than wither and decline. Yet achieving change presents one of the most intransigent problems for both organizations and individuals. Change is the only thing in this world that is permanent. Many people view change as a threat and indeed it is reasonable to be somewhat apprehensive. Change can be described as a natural and continuous part of individual and organizational growth and development. The day-to-day management process in these days, one way or the other involves managing change. An organization is subject to many pressures for change from a variety of sources. Moorhead and Griffin (1989) mention four areas in which the pressure for change seems most powerful. These are people, technology, information processing and communication and competition. Everyday people experience significance changes in their lives and careers. These changes may involve accepting a promotion at work, transferring to new office or even starting a new family. Some of these changes are chosen by ourselves while others are imposed on us. The ways people react to change differ. One will likely welcome changes which provide one with options and resist changes which give you no choice. Irrespective of any force that influences change in any organization, the change must be planned. McAfee and Champagne (1983) define a planned change as any deliberate attempt to modify the functioning of the total organization, or one of its major components, in order to improve effectiveness. The planned change efforts can focus on individual, group, or organizational behaviour. Change and change management are concepts that have come to assume greater importance in the discussions of top executives of most companies. Mckee (2005) suggests that one of the most significant essentials for success during transition is teambuilding and maintain that leaders that can challenge, motivate, and empower their teams through change are successful. Mckee goes further to state that leaders who can keep their work teams focused during changes will have organizations and businesses, which thrive. Since change is something we have to live with, the better we are able to manage its introduction and consequences the better for all. If an organization refuses to change, such organization will be changed. It is better to be quick than to be dead. McAfee and Champagne (1983) assert that forces of change, also known as change drivers or change initiators, can either be external or internal. The external change drivers are those forces that are outside the control of management but have made change imperative. Since the management has little control over them they have a greater effect on organizational change. No organization can operate in vacuum. An organization must interact with its external environment if it is to survive. The organization’s physical, financial and human resources are obtained from outside and the clients and customers for the organization’s products and services are also there. Therefore, anything that interferes with or modifies that environment can affect the organization’s operations and cause pressure for change. These include government policies, political development, technology, competition, changing consumer behaviour, industrial practices, external stakeholder interests, socio-economic environment, and customer capabilities. Mullins (1996) opines that internal change forces are pressures for change, which come from within the organization for which we have reasonable measure of control. These may include the appointment of new Chief Executive Officer, new organization objectives, managerial policies, technologies, employee attitudes, operation start-ups, business relocation, mergers and acquisitions. Mullins goes further to state that both external and internal forces for change, are not found in isolation. They are interrelated. More often than not, external change drivers create internal change drivers, which lead to organization change. If change is important then more important is its management. When change is not properly managed the result can be disastrous because of the possibilities of resistance among people. To successfully manage change one needs to understand basic concepts and strategies to build commitment and acceptance to change in all levels of the organization. Since change is something we have to live with, the better we are able to manage its introduction and consequences the better for all. In view of this, it is imperative that individuals, groups and corporate bodies must consciously plan for managing change if the rewards from it are to be maximized. It is certain however, that today’s organizations face quite specific challenges. These include increasing internationalization (the introduction of the term “globalization” to a business strategy), rapid advances in technology, uncertain political environments, and faster product life cycles. Competition from international producers has forced managers in domestic firms to re-assess the ways in which they organize. In technology, for example, fears that the Japanese organizations might be doing it right has prompted many European managers to study and copy their manufacturing processes, and other forms of inventory processing. Coupled with these manufacturing changes has been an increased emphasis on product and service quality. Not only do manufactured products and service delivery need to be of the highest standard for firms to compete effectively, management processes and human resource aspects of the organization need to be as effective as possible. The ultimate intention is to design an organization which is effective and efficient today and is also flexible enough to change quickly and responsively to any future changes in its environments. Mullins (2005) states that the relationship between the organization and its members is governed by what motivates them to work and the fulfillment they derive from it. Socio-economic changes, especially in the role of the government, have also had a great impact on all organizations in the private, public and voluntary sectors. The rapid industrialization at the turn of the century brought with it a whole host of changes focusing not only on the development of new technological processes for the emerging organizations, but also on the social and economic transformation of a previously rural-based community to an urban-based labour force. The manager has always had to cope with and handle change. It is endemic to organizational life. Possibly, the reason for the greater emphasis on managing change today lies in its increased perversity into all aspects of our lives. Not only is technological change taking place, but also there are changes occurring at all levels of social and institutional practice. Personal values are questioned. Work is no longer a natural part of individuals’ lives. Managers are no longer accepted as natural leaders. They have to earn and justify their position. And, at bottom of all this, is the almost inevitable link between change and organizational survival. Those organizations which do not respond to the challenges and changes facing them are likely to become old-fashioned and will not work well in the evolution of modern society. They will become old-fashioned, uneconomical to run and, ultimately, will close down, thus compounding the over bloated unemployment figures (Robert, et al, 2002).

Project detailsContents
 
Number of Pages174 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
ReferenceReference
QuestionnaireQuestionnaire
AppendixAppendix
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
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