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 1.1 Background of the Study 

For many years, the demand for and consumption of energy in many countries of the world has been on the increase. The major portion of the energy needs of these nations is electric energy. In Nigeria and other industrial developing nations, the demand for supply of electrical power has been on the increase, which may be as a result of improved economic activities of the people. To satisfy the increasing demand for electricity, complex power system networks have been built. The most usual practice in electric power transmission and distribution is an interconnected network of transmission lines usually referred to as a grid system that links generators and loads to form a large integrated system that spans the entire country. In many countries of the world including Nigeria, generating stations are located thousands of kilometers apart and operate in parallel. The generating stations’ output is connected and transmitted through the grid system to load centers nationwide. The complexity of an interconnected electric power system network provides different challenging engineering problems to the operators. These problems are in aspect of planning, construction, operation and control of the system. The problems can stimulate the managerial talent of the operator, while others tax his knowledge and experience in network design. One operating characteristic of power systems is that the devices included in the model can reach a particular state at which the equation that models the system will change. This characteristic is independent of many of the other assumptions used to model the system. The new state of the network must be predicted on automatic control and not on human operational response that can be very slow. The operator is forced to rely on ever more powerful tools of solving the problem of prediction of the performance of the complex system. One of the several problems confronting the efficient performance of an interconnected system is voltage stability. Voltage stability issues are of major concern worldwide because of the significant number of black-outs that have occurred in recent times in which it was involved. For many power systems, assessment of voltage stability and prediction of voltage instability or collapse have become the most important types of analysis performed as part of system planning, operational planning and real-time operation. Voltage stability is defined as the ability of a power system to maintain steady acceptable voltages at all buses in the system under normal operating conditions, and after being subjected to a disturbance [1]. In other words, voltage stability is the ability of a system to maintain voltage so that when load admittance is increased, load power will increase, and so that both power and voltage are controllable. The ability to transfer reactive power from production sources to consumption sinks during steady operating conditions is a major aspect of voltage stability. Voltage stability deals with the ability to control the voltage level within a narrow band around normal operating voltage. The consumers of electric energy are used to rather small variations in the voltage level and the system behaviour from the operators’ point of view is fairly well known in this normal operating state. Equipment control and operation are tuned towards specified set points giving small losses and avoiding power variation due to voltage sensitive loads. Once outside the normal operating voltage band many things may happen of which some are not well understood or properly taken into account today. A combination of actions and interactions in the power system can start a process which may cause a completely loss of voltage control. It is known that to maintain an acceptable system voltage profile, a sufficient reactive support at appropriate locations must be found. Nevertheless, maintaining a good voltage profile does not automatically guarantee voltage stability. On the other hand, low voltage although frequently associated with voltage instability is not necessarily its cause [2] and [3]. Voltage stability studies of a power system is now essential and is intended to help in the classification and the understanding of different aspects of power system stability [4].

Project detailsContents
Number of Pages162 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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