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QUANTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HOTEL SOLID WASTE IN CALABAR.

ABSTRACT

 In this study, solid wastes were collected from 20 Hotels of the 232 registered hotels with the Cross River State Tourism Bureau ranging from 6 to 146 rooms in Calabar. The hotels rating is from one (1) star to four (4) stars. Measurements were taken from the sources of wastes generated for eight weeks in December, 201;, August and September 2015 which represented the peak periods for businesses and climatic conditions with a view to determine waste generation rate, bulk density, moisture content and heavy metals/and their compostability. During the study, the average rate of solid waste generation was observed to be 0.262kg/capita/day with a standard deviation of 0.204 and a variance of 0.0414. A negative correlation (R= -0.142) was found between per capita waste generation and number of occupants. The bulk densities ranged from a lower class limit of 53kg/m3 for plastics to an upper class limit of 336kg/m3 for others (i.e refurbishing/renovation, used towels and rugs, sanitary pads, food wrappers, napkins, paints and ink) respectively. However, other bulk densities included 75kg/m3 for paper, 127kg/m3 for metal, 200.47kg/m3 for glass and 262.01kg/m3 for kitchen/food wastes. These bulk densities were all within the acceptable limits of 100kg/m3 to 500kg/m3 for solid waste. It was deduced that the moisture contents ranged from 0.65% to 74.89% for glass and kitchen waste respectively, with plastics having 1.2%, metals 2.10% and other wastes with 22.43%. Heavy metals such as Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn, were assessed for their suitability for composting using the clean index (CI) criteria. A clean index of 3.067 on a scale of 5 was observed, which made it fit for commercial production of organic fertilizers. A statistical analysis of variance - ANOVA, was used to compare the results of bulk densities for hotels, markets and integrated curbsides . A significance of 0.781 and an f value of 0.251 was observed, which implied that there was no significant difference among the various sources of waste that were compared. Recommendations were mad ,these include; relocation of the Calabar LEMNA landfill site to the outskirts of the city; the solid wastes should be put to use in form of biogas for generation of power supply; there should be a comprehensive environmental legislation that relates to environmental sanitation offences whereby cases will be tried in industrial courts and punishments given accordingly; and solid waste recycling practices should be encouraged.

Review project detailsComments
 
Number of Pages157 pages
Chapter one (1)Yes  Introduction
Chapter two (2)Yes  Literature review
Chapter three (3) Yes methodology
Chapter  four (4) Yes  Data analysis
Chapter  five (5) Yes Summary,discussion & recommendations
ReferenceYes Reference
QuestionnaireYes Questionnaire
Appendixyes Appendix
Chapter summaryyes 1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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