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PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AND COPING STRATEGIES AMONG PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV-AIDS IN KADUNA CENTRAL SENATORIAL DISTRICT, NIGERIA.

CHAPTER ONE 

INTRODUCTION 
Background to the study
 HIV/AIDS is one of the most complicated and bewildering social challenges faced by contemporary societies due to its strong ties with sexual and societal stigmatized behavior (Asante, 2012). Contracting HIV may lead to difficulties related to self-esteem, coping, social isolation, and poor psychological well-being (Asante, 2012). Besides, Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is not a disease, it’s a medical condition, and a health problem; it is primarily related to people and society (Chandrasekar, 2012). AIDS by its complexity poses a major threat to physical, mental, cultural, social and economical development in the life of the entire population. It causes not only physical problems but also destroys an individual’s social status and emotional health (Chandrasekar, 2012). In Nigeria, there are quite a number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). In a national survey conducted by the Federal Government for the 2012 National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey-Plus (NARHS Plus), Nigeria’s HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is 3.4 per cent. However, Rivers State leads other States in the country with a prevalence rate of 15.2 per cent. A cursory look at the new survey indicated that Taraba State ranked second with a prevalence rate of 10.5 per cent; followed by Kaduna State with 9.2 per cent. Nasarawa State has 8.1 per cent while the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) 7.5 per cent. Ekiti State however has the least prevalence rate of 0.2 per cent, Zamfara 0.4 per cent, Bauchi 0.6 per cent and Ogun 0.6per cent (Bala, 2012) In addition, by the end of 2009, 33.3 million people worldwide were living with HIV; 2.6 million people became newly infected and 1.8 million people had lost their lives to AIDS in the same year (Asante, 2012). With the alarming increase in the HIV/AIDS pandemic especially in developing countries, and the limited accessibility and availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the majority of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) continue to suffer with the disease, with a serious impact on their well-being (Asante, 2012).The impact could be deteriorating health condition, poor quality of life, stigma, social withdrawal, change in life roles and psychological distress. Psychological distress is a major problem of present era, especially for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Any situation that evokes negative thoughts and feelings in a person such as unpleasant, frustrating, irritable, worrisome, and anxious situation is considered psychological distress. According to Shaheen & Alam (2010) psychological distress is “a continuous experience of unhappiness, nervousness, irritability and problematic interpersonal relationships”. The same situation is not necessarily stressful for all people and all people do not experience the same negative thoughts and feelings when distressed. One model that is useful in understanding stress among PLWHA is the person- environment model (Shaheen & Alam, 2010). According to this model, stressful events can be appraised by an individual as “challenging” or “threatening”. This indicate that psychological distress is affected by many factors like personality characteristics, demand of situations, type of attributional styles and which kind of coping strategies are opted to deal with a stressful situation.

Project detailsContents
 
Number of Pages104 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
ReferenceReference
QuestionnaireQuestionnaire
AppendixAppendix
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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