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PROTEIN AND ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF AFRICAN GIANT LAND SNAIL (Achatina achatina)

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION
 1.1 BACKGROUND
 The importance of protein in the diet of man cannot be over-emphasized. Protein is required for normal growth and repair of the body tissues. It is the principal constituent of the organs of the animals’ body. Protein can be of plant or animal origin. Most plant protein is deficient in one amino acid or the other and may be associated with one anti- nutritional factor or another. Soyabean for instance is a vegetable protein source that contains trypsin inhibitor and is deficient in methionine. Animal protein is of high biological value and possesses all the essential amino acids in desirable quantities. The sources of animal protein include macro and micro livestock. The macro livestock are the conventional big animals such as sheep, goat, cattle, etc. However, the cost of production of macro livestock in term of housing, feeding, space and disease control is high. Micro livestock are excellent and cheaper sources of animal proteins (Akinnusi, 1998; NRC, 1991). The term micro livestock refers to a group of livestock associated with small body size, moderate nutrition and management (Oji, 2000). It includes snails, rabbits and cane rat, among others. Snails are invertebrate, shell bearing animals that are passive or inactive during the day, but very active in the night, at dusk or when it rains. They are usually found in cool environment (Segun 1975; FAO, 1986). Snail meat tastes good and it is also consumer friendly. When eaten, it serves as a special delicacy in the diet. Snail meat is particularly rich in protein (Ajayi et al., 1978). According to Imevbore and Ademosun (1988) indicated that snail meat has a protein content of 88.37 (dry weight, basis) low total fat content (1.64 percent), saturated fatty acids (28.71 percent) and cholesterol content (20.28mg/100g fresh sample). The analysis also showed that snail meat is a rich source of mineral particularly calcium and phosphorous with values of 185.70mg/100g and 61.24mg/100g dry sample respectively. Snail meat is rich in essential amino acids like lysine, leucine, isoleucine and phenylalanine and also high in iron to about 45-50mg/kg (Imeivbore, 1990; Stievenat, 1975). In West Africa, the common breeds of snail reared are the African giant land snail: Archachatina Marginata, Achatina achatina and Achatina fulica (Awesu, 1980; FAO, 1986 and Akinnusi, 1997). These breeds vary in their adaptability to environment, size at day old, size at maturity, egg size, and growth rate (Amusan and Omidiji, 1999). The two giant land snails common in Nigeria are Achatina achatina and Archachatina marginata. Achatina achatina has a brown shell with conspicuous zigzag streaks and a narrow apex. The foot (the fleshy part) is grey in colour. Archachatina marginata has a wide bulbous apex and the foot is usually dark brown to black in colour. According to Amusan and Omidiji (1999) Archatina achatina species has been found to be more difficult to breed in Nigeria they do not eat well and the growth rate is very slow compared to Archachatina marginata species.

Project detailsContents
 
Number of Pages70 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
ReferenceReference
QuestionnaireQuestionnaire
AppendixAppendix
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
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