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PREDICTIVE FACTORS OF BREAST CANCER SCREENING BEHAVIOURS AMONG WOMEN IN NNEWI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ANAMBRA STATE

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION
 Background to the study
 Cancer is a group of diseases that cause cells in the body to change and grow out of control. Most types of cancer cells eventually form a lump or mass called a tumour, and are named after the part of the body where the tumour originates (American Cancer Society (ACS), 2012). Breast cancer begins in the breast tissue. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, with nearly 1.7 million new cases diagnosed in 2012 (World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) International, 2013). In United States, breast cancer accounts for 29% of newly diagnosed cancers (ACS, 2013). One in 8 women in the United States will develop breast cancer in her life time (ACS, 2013). Also, ACS (2011), stated that breast cancer incidence death rates increase with age. In their opinion, 95% of new cases and 97% of breast cancer deaths occurred in women 40years of age and older. In Africa, breast cancer is second (after lung cancer) leading cause of death among African women (Courage to Dare Foundation, 2013). By the year 2020, one million cases of breast cancer are expected yearly in African countries (Courage to Dare Foundation, 2013).In a Ghanaian Teaching Hospital in 2012, breast cancer accounted for 29.3% of all cancers (Tagoe, Yarney, Kenu, Amanhyia, Enchill & Obeng, 2014). Studies from Nigeria indicate that breast cancer has been the most common female malignancy in areas of western and Eastern Nigeria (Anyanwu, 2008), Breast cancer incidence had risen at least four times over the decade and accounted for 40% of women cancers in 2010 (Adepoju, 2012 ). In the South-Western geopolitical zone of Nigeria, cancer of the breast was the leading malignancy among women (Ogunbiyi, Fabowale & Ladipo, 2010). In North central geopolitical zone (Ilorin),breast cancer constituted 22.41% of new cancer cases registered in 5 years and accounted for 35.41% of all cancers in women (Afolayan, Ibrahim & Ayilara, 2012). It is disheartening that breast cancer is responsible for about 450,000 females deaths per annum worldwide (WCRF, 2014). Whereas the deaths could be avoided or reduced if people accept they are at risk, believe that screening is an effective tool against breast cancer, and utilize the available opportunities of breast screening, stay free from breast cancer, be healthy and alive. Unlike other cancers, breast cancer lends itself to earlier diagnosis and subsequently more successful treatment. Early detection of breast cancer is a major determinant of reduction of its morbidity and mortality. A 95% survival could be achieved if breast cancer is detected early (Tavafian, Hasani, Teamur & Zare, 2009). According to WHO (2009) two components of early detection have been shown to reduce cancer mortality viz: education to help women recognize early signs of cancer and seek prompt medical attention; then screening to identify early cancer or pre-cancerous lesions before signs are recognizable.ACS (2012), is of the opinion that women should be familiar with how their breasts normally feel, and report any breast changes promptly to their health care providers, because 95% of breast cancers in advanced stages and 65% of breast cancers in primary stages are detected by women through Breast Self Examination (BSE). ACS (2013) recommends that women receive an annual mammogram beginning at age 40. Women in their 20s and 30s should have a CBE by a health professional every 3 years. Women who are at high risk for breast cancer should have magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a mammogram every year beginning at 30 years of age. BSE practice is a gateway to health promotion behaviour that provides women with knowledge and attitude that set the stage for clinical breast examination and mammography screening later in life (Avei, 2008). Furthermore, early detection of breast cancer has been facilitated by several technological innovations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been reported to detect almost all cancers at an early stage when used along with mammography (ACS, 2012). Acknowledging the importance of early detection, several countries have adopted breast cancer screening programmes as part of their cancer control strategies (Farid, Sadat & Dahlui, 2014).

Project detailsContents
 
Number of Pages101 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
ReferenceReference
QuestionnaireQuestionnaire
AppendixAppendix
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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