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 Background to the Study
 Childbirth is an experience full of change, enrichment, and challenge for couples and the family unit (Bloom, 2014). Childbirth takes not just one’s mind and body through a stream of change; it also takes the family through psychological adjustments (Eden, 2014). It is a time when couples as family confront their fears and expectations about becoming parents. In other words, parenthood may have physical and psychological changes in both mother and father depending on the circumstances of pregnancy, labour and mode of delivery. Vaginal delivery is the birth of off-springs in humans through the vagina (Abedian, 2010). It is the natural method of birth for humans. The different types of vaginal delivery may include Normal/spontaneous vaginal delivery, assisted vaginal delivery, and induced vaginal delivery (Hakeem, 2014). Virtually all types of vaginal delivery produces some changes in a mother’s brain. Since the brain controls or regulates the functioning of the human body, it may be logical to assume a resultant change in functioning of the mother’s body (Glynn, 2014). The actual details in the process of vaginal delivery may determine the degree of impact of childbirth on health and well being (Rice, 2012). This could be evidenced by the fact that the average hospital stay after a normal vaginal delivery is 36-48hours or with an episiotomy [surgical cut to widen the vaginal canal] is 48-60hours (Abedian, 2010). Caesarean delivery is the birth of off-springs through a surgical procedure in which one or more incisions are made through a mother's abdomen and uterus to deliver one or more babies (Wiklund, Edman, & Andolf, 2007). It is performed when a vaginal delivery would put the baby's or mother's life or health at risk (Abedian, 2010). Some are also performed upon request without a medical reason to do so (Wiklund, Edman, & Andolf, 2007). Caesarean deliveries have been classified in various ways by different perspectives. It is most common to classify Caesarean deliveries by the urgency of performing them. Conventionally, caesarean sections are classified as being either an elective or emergency delivery (Adewara, Omokanye, Balogun, Salaudeen, Saidu, & Jimoh, 2012). A planned or elective caesarean delivery is an elective surgery, meaning that it is scheduled in advance rather than performed because of an emergency. This confers the ability to perform the delivery at a time when hospital resources are optimal, such as at daytime rather than what might otherwise turn out to be at night. Critics also argue that because physicians and institutions may benefit by reducing night time and weekend work, an inappropriate incentive exists to suggest elective surgery (Gbenga, 2015). Therefore, elective caesarean sections may be performed on the basis of an obstetrical indication, or maternal request. Rice (2012) argues that planned caeserean delivery may be putting greater strain on the health and well being of mothers than normal vaginal delivery. He noted that the average hospital stay after caeserean delivery is 60-120 hours. This statement eventually questions an affirmation made by Chong and Kwek (2010) that elective caeserean delivery is relatively safe for both mother and fetus. No matter the mode of delivery however, childbirth has some physical and psychological impact on the mother. Following vaginal or caesarian delivery, mothers may often endure physical pain, haemorrhoids, constipation, urinary incontinence, prolonged haemorrhage, postpartum depression and difficulty regaining pre-pregnancy shape (Nassauer, 2013). Hence, childbirth could be considered a potent stressor (Hakeem, 2014). Therefore the process of birth may mean extra pressure on the functioning of a mother’s general system or her health and well being, which in turn could affect her quality of life.

Project detailsContents
Number of Pages124 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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