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 Background to the Study
 Psychiatric and mental health nursing is a specialized area of nursing practice committed to promoting mental health through the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of human responses to mental health problems and psychiatric disorders (ANA, 2007). Psychiatric and mental health nursing can equally be described as a core profession, which employs a purposeful use of self as its art and a wide range of nursing, psychosocial, and neurobiological theories and research evidence as its science in the promotion and management of mental health and mental illness (ANA, 2007). Furthermore, psychiatric and mental health nurses provide comprehensive, patient-centred mental health and psychiatric care and outcome evaluation in a variety of settings across the entire continuum of care. Essential components of this specialty practice include health and wellness promotion through identification of mental health issues, prevention of mental health problems as well as care and treatment of persons with psychiatric disorders (Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing Scope & Standards, 2006). In spite of the above recognition of vital and fulcrum roles played by psychiatric nurses in issues of mental health, globally there are published empirical evidence of dearth of mental health nurses. Examining this assertion in Nigeria situation through a study carried out by Izibeloko and Leana (2013), Nigeria has a ratio of mental health bed of 0.4 per 100.000 persons, 4 psychiatric nurses per 100 000 persons, 0.09 psychiatrists and 0.02 psychologists and social workers per 100 000 persons and a total public health expenditure of 5% of the country's budget for her mental health . Unarguably, this statistical number of mental health nurses is no match to carter for the mental health of over 160 million Nigerians. This could reflect how health professionals are not venturing into psychiatric and mental health as a way of specialization. Among the factors that may contribute to reluctance on the part of new graduate nurses to enter psychiatric mental health nursing, is a lack of understanding about the contributing factors to mental illness, and stigma can be a principal barrier to promoting psychiatric mental health nursing (Stuhlmiller, 2005). Society holds outdated beliefs about mental illness (Halter, 2008). A central theme of stigma of mental illness is a perception that persons with mental illness are dangerous, unpredictable, incompetent and unlikeable (Alexander & Link, 2003). Persons with mental illness experience stigma and the healthcare professionals taking care of them also experience ‘stigma by association’ (Halter, 2008). As long as this stigma exists, the possibility of consumers of mental health services receiving optimal care is severely diminished (Happell, 2005), as is the vision of psychiatric mental health nursing as a satisfying, worthwhile area of practice. It may be possible that nurses will hold the same stigmatizing attitudes as have been found in the general population if nursing education does not address stigma, which includes; beliefs that persons with mental illness are not only in control of their illness but that they caused it (Ilic et al., 2013). Similarly, nurses, as society in general, may react to persons with mental illness with anger and belief that help is not deserved (Romem, Anson, Maymon, & Moisa, 2008). None of these beliefs encourage nurses to enter practice settings with persons with mental illness. According to Happell and Gough (2007), although most undergraduate, pre-licensure nursing students report being relatively well informed about mental illness, they also have negative stereotypes towards mental illness and consumers of mental health services. This perception also brings about the idea that mental health nursing is stressful (Karimollahi, 2011). Student nurses report intense anxiety stemming from fear of the unknown, media effects, peer effects, fear of violence, and erroneous beliefs (Karimollahi, 2011).

Project detailsContents
Number of Pages124 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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