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 Background to the Study 

Globally, people abuse substances such as drugs, alcohol, tobacco and psychoactive substances for varied and complicated reasons, but it is clear that our society pays a significant cost. The toll for this abuse can be seen in our hospitals and emergency departments through direct damage to health by substance abuse and its link to physical and mental trauma. Jails and prisons tally the strong connection between crime, drug dependence and abuse. Substance abuse patterns though varied among youth populations across regions of the world are unprecedented and alarming (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2007). In Nigeria, this social malady is considered an issue of serious public health concern as it adversely affects the lives and performance of secondary school students involved as well as the harmonious functioning of entire structure of the society (Bachman, Schlenberg & Malley, 2011). Substance has been variously defined in literature. Conceptualizing substance in this study offers profound insights into substance abuse. Hornby (2010) defines substance as a physical material from which something is made or which has discrete existence. He further refers to substance as an intoxicating, stimulating, or narcotic chemical or drug, especially an illegal one. Examples of substances include insulin, heroin, amphetamines, and cocaine. Due to availability and accessibility to these substances, individuals especially adolescents are more vulnerable to their overt or covert abuse (World Health Organization-WHO, 2012). Abuse has been defined as the use of something in a way that is wrong or harmful (Hornby, 2010). WHO (2012) referred to abuse as non-medical or unsanctioned patterns of use, irrespective of consequences. When psychoactive substances are used in unsanctioned patterns, a phenomenon known as substance abuse ensues. The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) issued by the American Psychiatric Association (APA), the DSM-IV-TR, defines substance abuse as a maladaptive pattern of use indicated by continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent social, occupational, psychological or physical problem that is caused or exacerbated by the use (or by) recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). It is a residual category, with dependence taking precedence when applicable. Health Officers Council of British Colombia-HOC (2005) asserted that substance abuse also known as drug abuse is a patterned use of a substance (drug) in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods neither approved nor supervised by medical professionals. Substance abuse or drug abuse is not limited to mood-altering or psychoactive drugs. If an activity is performed using the object against the rules and policies of the matter (as in steroids for performance enhancement in sport) it is also substance abuse. Therefore, mood altering and psychoactive substances are not the only types of drug abuse. Use of illicit drugs like narcotics, stimulants, depressants, (sedatives), hallucinogens, cannabis, even glues and paints are also considered to be classified as drug or substances abuse. Substance abuse often includes problems with impulse control and impulsive behaviours.

Project detailsContents
Number of Pages114 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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