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 Background of the Study
 In every educational institution students at any level are bound to undergo one form of academic assessment or another. Educational assessment is vital in teaching and learning process as every educational system needs to measure the learners’ knowledge, skills and attributes against the predetermined standard in order to determine the extent to which the teaching learning objectives as specified in the curriculum have been achieved. According to Basavanthapa, (2003), educational assessment provides the necessary feedback required in order to maximize the end result of educational efforts of every student. Assessment of student performance also aims at providing supportive evidence necessary for the decision making on their educational performance. Academic evaluation is also a critical aspect of teaching learning process. Educational evaluation or assessment is carried out in two major forms namely, formative or continuous assessment and summative assessment. Summative assessment entails assigning a grade for student’s achievements at the end of a term, course or instructional programs. The old method of assessing students otherwise called summative assessment is quite different from the method of continuous assessment. The difference is based on some issues such as how a student who happens to fall ill and could not write the final examination would be graded. The short comings of summative evaluation breed problems such as examination malpractice, mental and physical exhaustion and embarrassment to both the student and examination bodies; as a result educational measurement experts and policy makers have come up with the concept of continuous assessment (Onuka, 2005). Continuous assessment which is the focus of this study refers to the ongoing or systematic assessment of student’s achievements while term courses or instructional programme is in progress. It is used to monitor learning progress during instruction and to provide continuous feedback to both students and teachers concerning learning successes and failures. The feedback to students reinforces successful learning and identifies the learning problems that need corrections. Feedback to the teacher provides information for modifying instruction. Continuous assessment is known to provide an enabling environment for both students and teachers to know how much the students have acquired in learning (Cronbach, 2000). Continuous assessment also gingers students to read ahead of time, prepare in advance for their examinations to come and have a firmer grip in the understanding of their courses. Race, (2007) stressed that continuous assessment is more useful to the students, since it provides them with on-going feedback on their performance, helps them to become more self-critical, and encourages them to attempt to master materials as they actually work through a course or course unit rather than leaving the real learning process to the very end. It is also much fairer, in that it allows students to demonstrate their ability and development on an on-going basis, so that the student who works steadily and consistently well but is not very good at sitting for examination is not placed at a disadvantage compared with the lazy student who is skillful at the “examination game” but otherwise not particularly competent. The concept of continuous assessment is not new in education in developed countries where continuous assessment is in-built into the teaching and learning as posited by Izard, (2007).Moreover, previous studies on the subject have revealed that in the international scenarios, formative assessment had already been practiced in schools including Australia, Canada, Denmark, England, Finland and Scotland (Adebowale &Alao, 2008). However, for several years, the educational systems of many African nations were dominated by the one-short summative type of assessment, (Alausa, 2005). The examination system, up to the time of the introduction of continuous assessment was also based purely on the single summative assessment (Fafunwa, 2004).Students were coached to pass examinations so as to move up the education ladder. It was to counter the problems of the single summative examination that suggestion for a broader approach to assessment, which will be flexible and also provide valid and reliable results were made.

Project detailsContents
Number of Pages109 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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