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NORTH –CENTRAL GEO-POLITICAL ZONE OF NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE
 INTRODUCTION 
 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
 The dramatic increase in products, markets, enhanced technology, and robust competition has led to a dynamic global business environment. Companies that have flourished in the 21st century are those that have learned to respond to turbulence by managing change effectively. Most organizations are aware of the need for change; however, the challenge lies in implementing strategies that stick. For a number of reasons, including a lack of understanding of deeper organizational issues or a failure to recognize the cross-functional implications of change, system-wide change often goes awry (Mark and Rossy, 2007). Evidence suggests that organization members are more inclined to embrace change when the organization’s culture is aligned with the mission and goals of the company. Although Management may espouse a set of values that they assume defines the organizational culture, the reality is that the way members perceive what is rewarded and what they believe to be the underlying message will constitute the “real,” in-use culture of how things are accomplished. In this context, Mark and Gerard (1999) suggest that a cultural analysis be undertaken to facilitate the planning and implementation of organizational change. In recent time, managing change efficiently amidst established organizational culture has become a veritable tool for achieving the final component of desired successful organizational objectives with the right strategy, process, and people in most modern organizations. Besides, staying competitive in the face of demographic trends, technological innovations, and globalization requires organizations to change at much higher pace than ever before. An effective and efficient change management is a continuous and on-going combination of art and science that assures alignment of an organisation’s strategies, structures and processes (Edgar, 2006:22) and (Bateman and Crant, 1999:21). Change implies to make difference, alter, or modify the way an organization is run. Schein (1990:25) defines organizational change as an introduction of new patterns of action, belief, and attitudes among substantial segments of population while DeBettignies and Boddewyn (1971:221) view change as the process of adaptation by the organization to change internal and external circumstances. Managers anticipate a need for change when there is a gap between desired and actual performance levels (James et al, 2004). Environmental and internal forces can stimulate the need for an organization to change. Organisations depend on and must interact with their external environment in order to survive. Any factor in the external environment that interfere with the organisation’s ability to attract the human and material resources it needs, or to produce and market its services or products, becomes a force for change. Similarly any factor in the internal environment that affects the way the organization carries out its activities becomes a force for change. Meanwhile, in the light of gross and incremental changes constantly occurring in the internal and external environment of organizations in the view of Bateman and Crant, (1999:21), leaders need to realize that their organizations can only survive if they anticipate, recognize, strategize, plan, and implement adequate change in a timely manner given the dictates of their organizational and environmental culture. As argued by Bateman and Crant (1999:24-25), organizations face a variety of challenges, including competition from global markets, managerial restructuring by down-sizing or right sizing, mergers, acquisitions, break-ups of companies, increased business regulations and heightened media scrutiny. There is also the challenge of employee’s desire to take a more significant part in the decision-making process, a disturbing trend in business ethics. This has resulted in increased employee and shareholder activism and above all, the prevailing organizational culture. Such a changing and increasingly unpredictable business environment under given cultural practices requires leaders to ensure their organizations are constantly and properly aligned with the new business realities. It is important that leaders anticipate possible changes under known organizational culture in the business environment before they become a threat to their organizations. Bateman and Crant (1999:68) suggest ‘proaction’, that is, actively creating change within the context of existing organizational culture and other determinants of change success, and not merely anticipating it. Moreover, it is important to redefine the ethical framework for proper business conduct of an organization in global business setting. Without introducing adequate change in a timely and difficult time significantly hampers organizations’ chances of long-term survival. The rapidity and degree with which change occurs in modern society complicates both the human and organizational experience. Shifting activities and emphasis demands different skills for adults alike so they could cope with life and work. ‘The only thing that we know about the future is that it will be different” (Drucker, 1996)’. Change is a permanent feature of an organization’s life. To be able to survive in the face of increasing competition, quicker routes to the market and pressure to deliver better results, in the opinion of Buono (2005:27), organizations cannot afford to remain static. Organisations find themselves buffeted by external forces: technological, market, political and cultural and as such are challenged to become ever more efficient, effective, productive and competitive with the questions of how they could be active masters of change rather than reactive servants; how could change in organisations be driven by their people rather than the organisation in the abstract, or its leaders having to drag them along. As argued by Burman and Evans (2008), organisations will fail if they are not capable of learning, in a collective sense, as well as the individuals who spend their days at work there. They will fail if they do not regard themselves as places of continuous personal and corporate reinvention, of individual and institutional transformation. The organization and every person within it need to envision themselves, not as a change object, but as an agent of change. Changing organizational culture as affirmed by Janet, et al (2008) is the toughest task the firm will ever take on as the organizational culture was formed over years of interaction among participants in the organization. The culture of any organisation grows over time given that people are always comfortable with the current organizational state of doing things. For people to consider culture change, usually a significant event must occur. An event that rocks their world such as flirting with bankruptcy, a significant loss of sales and customers, or losing a million dollars, might get people's attention. Even then, as argued by Edgar (1999), to recognize that the organizational culture is the culprit and to take steps to change it remains a tough journey. When people in an organization realize and recognize that their current organizational culture needs to transform to support the organization's success and progress, change can occur which, in most instances, is not pretty and not easy. Failed change initiatives and inability to efficiently manage resistance to them leave in their wake cynical and burned out employees even as they stick and believe in the culture of the organization which management is working towards replacing, making the next change objective even more difficult to accomplish. In the view of Adkins and Caldwell (2004), it should come as no surprise that the fear and/or inability to manage change and impacts of organizational culture on Management’s effort are a leading cause of anxiety in managers and employees in modern organizations. Contributing, Christopher and Yvonne (2006:1) asserts that growing number of companies are undertaking the kinds of organization changes needed to survive and prosper in today’s environment even as subsisting organizational culture has continued to pose resistance to successful change programme in organisations. In recognition of the dynamism of change and the level of managerial expertise required in managing it, Calian (2006:47) asserts that the age of the knowledge worker has arrived. This is a time when managers must lead, workers must innovate and organizations must grow organically. With the market economy conquering the world culminating in the shrinking of it into a global village, organizations have to change their stance, with a strategy focused at the global market and acquire agility to respond quickly to the customer expectations. Such organizational change can be brought about by building high performing synergistic work systems comprising many inter-related parts, which must function as a whole to reach the goals of meeting customer needs. Such synergistic work systems involve tailored configurations of work structures, practices and processes. An organization which desires to change its culture must proceed cautiously, realizing that culture change is more difficult to effect than behaviour change, and usually takes longer as well. Sathe (1983) shows that culture’s durability and efficiency represent both an asset and a liability for an organization and a smart organization must learn to stop perpetuating a culture that is unimpressive to the needs of the business. Often only the top Management has the power and influence to institute a change in overall organizational culture, which involves not merely structural and technological change, but also change in share symbols, rituals and beliefs.

Project detailsContents
 
Number of Pages145 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
ReferenceReference
QuestionnaireQuestionnaire
AppendixAppendix
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
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