Type Here to Get Search Results !


An organisation exists when two or more people come together for the purpose of achieving certain objectives that ordinarily would be difficult for an individual to achieve. According to Akpala (1990:4), an organisation is a combination of people or individuals working together in pursuit of certain common purposes called organisational objectives. All organisations are purposive, which according to Nwachukwu (1992) means that all organisations whether profit seeking or non profit seeking, exist for some purpose. The goals may be profit making (Business organisations); training and educating people (Schools); National defence (Army) and social satisfaction / affiliation (social clubs) etc. Individuals in an organization work in order to help accomplish the organisational objectives. These individuals also wish to accomplish their own goals through the organization. To achieve their goals, all organizations need to combine the three main resources of men, money and materials in pursuit of their goals using the process known as management (Ikeagwu 1992 P. 2). Management has been described by Glassman (1978) in Ikeagwu (1999) as the process through which organisations seek to utilize their resources to achieve their established objectives. Nwachukwu (1992:P4), defined management as the coordination of all the resources of an organisation through the process of planning, organising, directing and controlling in order to attain organisational objective(s). According to Ikeagwu (1999), an organisations three main resources of men, materials and money are coordinated for specific purposes in the process known as management. With these different resources and different ways of combining and utilizing them, management can be said to be an all embracing process subsuming a number of sub processes. Thus one can think of sub process of managing money, the sub process of managing materials and the sub process of managing men (people) which is called Human resources management. Some authors use the terms human resources management (HRM) and personnel management (PM) interchangeably while some view human resources management as being somewhat different from the traditional personnel management on the grounds that personnel management appears to be more clerically oriented and narrower in scope than human resources management. Personnel management is defined by Fillipo as the planning, organising, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration and maintenance of people for the purpose of contributing to organizational goals. Human resources management according to Fisher et al (1990:P6) involves all management decisions and practices that directly affect or influence the people who work for the organization. According to Ikeagwu (1999) the two terms human resources management and personnel management are synonymous but personnel management is the older and more an established name while human resources management is the more up to date title for the field. Some distinct features of human resources management include that while personnel management is work force oriented, deals with every problem exclusively and emphasises employees welfare; human resources management is management oriented, emphasises research and analysis, looks at the whole thing globally, goes into detail to get the root cause of the problem, aims at obtaining and retaining people for maximum performance by ensuring that the right person is selected for the job by using the right method of recruitment and selection. The terms human resources management and systems have come to the fore in recent years. Their usage according to Ikeagwu (1999:P73) reflects a growing concern for personnel system as distinct from compartmentalised personnel policies. In order words, there is a growing awareness by managers and personnel specialists that the organisation is an organic entity and that all its parts are so interdependent that a change cannot be introduced in one without affecting the total. In tracing the historical antecedents of human resources models, Ikeagwu (1999:P75) stated that the theory x of Douglas McGregor preceded the human resources models. Theory x which implies an autocratic approach to management was widely accepted; and with few exceptions, universally practised before the human relations movement. The human relations movement slowly began to undermine the assumptions of theory x and by 1940s and 1950s, many managers and most theories of management no longer abide by the assumptions of theory x. Two factors that restructured practitioners’ thinking about the management of people are human relations theory and research. This rethinking is summarised in McGregor’s Theory y. Theory y implies humanistic and supportive approach to managing people. While theory x approach preceded the human relations theory and practice of management, theory y marks the point of departure for the human resources management model. Ikeagwu (1999:P76) stressed that the basic assumptions of the human resources approach are similar to those of theory y but that it goes beyond theory y by stating what the actual implementation for the practice of management and the expectation of managers and workers will be. These policies are:- 1. The managers´ basic task is to make use of untapped human resources. 2. He must create an environment in which all members may contribute to the limits of their ability. 3. He must encourage full participation on important maters and continually broadening subordinates self direction and control. It is expected that these policies will yield some results such as:- a. Expanding subordinates influence, self direction and self control which will lead to direct improvement in operating efficiency b. Work satisfaction may improve as a by-product of subordinates making full use of their resources. In summary, the manager in human resources model goes beyond human relations approach by having a real understanding of the complexities of human motivation, proper understanding of learning theories and behaviour modification, psychological process and personality theory, proper understanding of dynamics of individual differences, group dynamics and other social considerations. The human resources manager also undertakes an in-depth analytical study of these factors and backs them up by research findings.

Project detailsContents
Number of Pages134 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


All  listed topics on our website are available project materials in PDF and MS word files, well supervised and approved by lecturers who are intellectual in their various fields of discipline,  documented to assist you with complete, quality and well organized researched work.  if you can't find what you're looking for feel free to contact us. 

Feel free to contact us chat with us on WhatsApp
Hello, How can I help you? ...
Click me to start the chat...