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Background to the study
 The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic is one of the most serious health crises the world is facing today. A disproportionate burden has been placed on women and children, who in many settings continue to experience high rate of new HIV infections and HIV related illnesses and death (Federal Ministry of Health, 2013). Knowledge of HIV status is vital in order that pregnant women access the appropriate treatment and care for themselves and their unborn infants (Mkwanazi et al, 2008). HIV Testing and counselling of pregnant women is essential because of the premium placed on children as objects of parental hope for future survival, and the acceptance of antenatal care, enhance the cultural endorsement of testing and counseling for PMTCT of HIV in antenatal settings. The aim of testing and counselling is to help the woman take necessary action to ensure that she does not become infected with HIV. However, if she is already infected, the aim is to help her protect her own health, the health of the unborn child, of her sex partner and of her family (FMOH, 2013). HIV-related stigma and discrimination affect a pregnant woman’s decision to enrol in PMTCT programme and interrupt adherence to treatment and retention in care (Turan & Nyblade, 2013). It has been established that over 50 percent of vertical transmission from mother-to-child HIV globally can be attributed to the cumulative effect of stigma when accessing PMTCT services (International Centre for Research on Women [ICRW] 2014). Some health care workers are hesitant about handling the delivery of babies born to HIV-positive mothers for fear of HIV infection (Adedimeji, Abboud, Merdekios and Shiferaw, 2012). In 2014, 35million individuals were living with HIV globally, of which 15.7million were women and 2.1 million were children under 15 years of age (UNAID, 2014). Globally, HIV is the leading cause of death in women of reproductive age. Since nearly all HIV infections in children are acquired from their mothers, the global epidemiology of HIV in children reflects that of HIV in women (FMOH, 2010). It has been estimated that, in 2009, there were 370,000 new peadiatric HIV infections with sub Saharan Africa accounting for about 90% of both of these figures. Nearly all such infections can be prevented by Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programme providing highly effective anti retroviral therapy (ART) and anti retroviral (ARV) prophylaxis interventions (FMOH 2010). Sub-Saharan Africa has continued to bear the greatest burden of the HIV and AIDs epidemic, with approximately 67.6% of the total new infections and 72.2% of the 1.8 million deaths in 2009 (FMOH, 2010). Over the decades, the epidemic, once dominated by infected males has become progressively feminized and in Sub-Saharan Africa approximately 60% of adults living with HIV are women. Over 90% of infection in children is acquired through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and as more women contract the virus, the number of children infected has been growing.

Project detailsContents
Number of Pages63 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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