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 Background to the Study 

The nutritional status of a woman before and during pregnancy is important for a healthy pregnancy outcome. However nutritional deficiencies are widely prevalent globally and contribute significantly to high rates of morbidity and mortality among mothers, infants and children in developing countries. More than one third of child deaths in some developing countries are thought to be attributable to maternal and child under nutrition (Black, Allen, Bhutta, Caulfield, de Onis, Ezzati, et al, 2008). The prevalence of maternal undernutrition - that is, a BMI of less than 18.5 kg/m2 - ranges from 10 to 19% in most countries with more than 20% of women in sub-Saharan Africa, South central and Southeastern Asia, and Yemen reported to have a BMI of less than 18.5 kg/m2 (Thirukkanesh & Zahara, 2010) . This scenario has adverse effects on pregnancy outcome and increases the risk of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. Maternal malnutrition occur more in pregnancy because nutrient needs including that of micronutrients are increased during the period of pregnancy relative to women who are not pregnant (Christian, 2010). The increased nutritional need is due to the physiologic changes of the woman and the metabolic demands of the fetus. Proper maternal nutrition during pregnancy is thus imperative for the health of both the woman and the offspring. Nutritional deficiencies are common during pregnancy, especially in pregnant women from economically disadvantaged settings where diets with low density of minerals and vitamins are consumed. Malnutrition among pregnant women in these settings manifests itself at the macronutrient and/or the micronutrient level. Maternal malnutrition is a modifiable risk factor of public health importance. Prevention of malnutrition including micronutrient deficiency therefore has been integrated into efforts to prevent adverse birth outcomes, particularly among economically developing/low-income populations (Kawai, Spiegelman, Shankar & Fawzi, 2011 ). Poor nutritional status of mothers during pregnancy has direct and indirect consequences on the health of mothers and that of their children. The nutritional status of a mother therefore is important, both as an indicator of her overall health and as a predictor of pregnancy outcome for both mother and child (Elshibly & Schmalisch, 2008; Khoushabi & Saraswathi, 2010). Beyond the period of pregnancy, adequate maternal nutrition is needed for breastfeeding, recovery following the stress of pregnancy and childbirth, coping with child rearing and care and preparation for future pregnancies. Micronutrient deficiency is a form of malnutrition that can be found among pregnant women involving low levels of micronutrients. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies commonly co-exist in pregnant women, especially in less developed nations (Christian, 2010). Nigeria is one developing country where such deficiencies can exist. Though micronutrients are nutrients needed only in very small quantities, they are essential for normal physiological function, growth and development. According to Taddese & Henok, (2013), micronutrient deficiencies result from inadequate intake of meat, fruits and vegetables, but infections can also be a cause. These deficiencies as aforementioned can negatively impact the health of the mother, her pregnancy, as well as the health of the newborn baby. Micronutrients otherwise known as vitamins and minerals refer to those nutrients required in small amounts in the range of milligrams or micrograms (Berman, Snyder, Kozier & Erb, 2008). Micronutrients are needed to metabolize the energy-giving nutrients. Micronutrients include the water soluble vitamins, Vitamin C and the B-complex vitamins, the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K and minerals.

Project detailsContents
Number of Pages41 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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