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KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF SCREENING FOR BREAST AND CERVICAL CANCERS AMONG WOMEN IN UYO, AKWA IBOM STATE

CHAPTER ONE 

INTRODUCTION

 Background to the study

 Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells anywhere in the body. The abnormal cells are termed malignant or misnomer cells (Dugdale, 2010). Cancer is a group of more than 200 diseases characterized by unregulated growth of cells. It can in persons of all ages and all races and is a major health problem in many countries worldwide. It is known to be the most feared of all diseases, feared far more than heart diseases (Seeley, Stephen & Tate, 2010). These authors viewed cancer as synonymous with death, pain, disfigurement and dependency. Hippocrates coined the word carcinoma, meaning a tumour that spreads and destroys the host. However, ancient Egyptians and later Galen described cancer as being crablike in nature because cancerous tumours stick onto the body and prey on the flesh like crabs. They grasp the tissues they invade and cause pain that is throbbing, creeping, gnawing the flesh and resembling the pinching of a crab (Dugdale, 2010). In the females, the most occurring cancers are those affecting the mammary glands ( breast cancer) and those affecting the neck of the uterus (cervical cancer) (Bassey, Ekpe & Abasiatai, 2007; American Cancer Society (ACS), 2009 & Odetola, 2011). Breast cancer is cancer that occurs in the breast tissue. It is a malignant proliferation of epithelial cells that line the ducts or lobules of the breast. It is formed when the processes that control normal cell growth breaks down, enabling a single abnormal cell to multiply at a rapid rate. These new cells tend to destroy an increasing portion of normal breast tissue overtime and may occur metastasize to other parts of the body (Smeltzer, Bare, Hinkle & Cheever, 2010). Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women in 140 of 180 countries worldwide (Ferlay, Soerjomataram, Ervik, Rebelo, Parkin & Forman, 2013). In 2007, 1.7 million women were diagnosed with breast cancer and there were already 6.3 million women who were alive with the diagnosis of breast cancer in the previous five years (Ferlay, et. al, 2013). Since 2008 estimates, breast cancer incidence has increased by more than 20% while the mortality has increased by 14% making it to be the most common cause of cancer death among women, with 522,000 deaths in 2012 worldwide (Ferlay, at. al, 2013; Fasoranti, 2013). Worldwide trends show that developing countries are going through rapid societal and economic changes in an attempt to become industrialized. There is also a shift in the life style of people towards that of industrialized countries, leading to a rise in the burden of cancer especially those associated with reproductive, dietary and hormonal risk factors. Breast cancer incidence and mortality are increasing in most countries of Africa and Asia (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2012).Ferlay, et. al (2013) reports that the incidence rate of breast cancer varies in different regions of the world, it remains highest in more developed regions, while its mortality is relatively much higher in less developed countries due to lack of early detection and access to treatment facilities. For instance in Western Europe, breast cancer incidence has reached more than 90 new cases per 100,000 women annually compared with 30 per 100,000 women in East Africa.

Project detailsContents
 
Number of Pages127 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
ReferenceReference
QuestionnaireQuestionnaire
AppendixAppendix
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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