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KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF ANTE NATAL,LABOUR AND POSTPARTUMCARE AMONG TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANTS IN SOUTERN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE 

 INTRODUCTION 
Background to the study
 Skilled attendants at birth are a proven intervention to improved maternal and newborn health outcomes. In many developing countries where there is often a shortage of trained biomedical personnel, maternal care is usually provided by Traditional Birth Attendants World Health Organization (WHO, 2010). One key intervention to improve maternal health is to ensure that all women have access to skilled care during labour and delivery, unfortunately, less than 40% of Nigerian women give birth with a skilled attendant, this suggest that over 60% of Nigerian women are at excess risk of maternal death, as they do not have access to or utilize available lifesaving services (Graham, Bill &Bullough, 2009).Throughout history, TBAs have been the main human resource for women during childbirth, their role varies across cultures and times but even today, they attend to the majority of deliveries in the rural areas of developing Countries (Imogie,2012).Traditional birth attendants are accessible, culturally acceptable and are known to influence women’s decisions about using their health care. World Health Organization (WHO, 2005).There is little doubt that they have a significant role when it comes to cultural competence and psychosocial support at birth, all of which are important benefit for the woman and also the newborn baby (Falle, Mullany & Thatte,2009).WHO,(2012) observes that, TBAs can potentially improve maternal and newborn health at community level and while the role of TBAs in caring for pregnant women & conducting deliveries is acknowledged, they are generally not trained. Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) have varying definitions across the globe. World Health Organization further reports that traditional birth attendants and community midwives have a key role to play in midwifery practice. They are often the only available source of basic prenatal care and family planning services in isolated communities, and are generally the main source of help in pregnancy and childbirth. They are highly respected members and proven asserts in addressing poor maternal outcomes (Mac-Arthur, 2009).Studies in developing countries such as Bangladesh, Turkey, South Asia and Nigeria revealed that Traditional birth attendants are generally older, non-literate women who have learnt the care of pregnant women, delivery and postpartum care through apprenticeship (Fatmi, Gulzer, &Kazi, 2005). The TBAs consider themselves to be the private practitioners who respond to request for services, TBAs receive some compensation for their services, mostly in kind and some accept whatever monetary amount is given to them by the families (Humsein & Mpembeni, 2005). TBAs have a variety of names depending on where they are operating. They are all over the world, in developed or developing world, rural or urban. They are the Dias of India,dunkuns of Indonesia, the iji-ime of the Igbos, the agbesi of the yorubas and the abia unam of the Efiks.The traditional birth attendant also known as traditional midwife, community midwife or lay midwife is a pregnancy and childbirth care provider, World Health Organization(WHO, 2010).Traditional midwives provide basic healthcare, support and advice during and after pregnancy and childbirth, based primarily on experience and knowledge acquired informally through the tradition and practice of the community where they originate(WHO, 2010). Traditional birth attendants could render services in their homes or churches as the case maybe; these practices have gained momentum by the day, as their services could be accessed widely. Frequently, their services include helping in household chores, massage of the women’s body, ante natal care, deliveries, care of the neonates and family Planning services. However, traditional birth attendants have no formal training on how to attend to pregnant women including how to recognize and respond appropriately to complications of pregnancy, for this reason, the way many attend to delivery was traumatic resulting in disability, leading to poor health outcomes and even death. (Rocker, Wilson, Mbaruka & Kruk, 2009). Traditional birth attendants are also described as members of the community, they share cultural and health beliefs with the women they serve and have strong ties with the community (Bultery, Fowler, Shaffer, Tih, Greenberg, Karita, & Cock 2010). Some women become Traditional birth attendants in the communities by working with and beside their mothers, other female’s relatives or other Traditional birth attendants (Syamala, 2007).Some women are selected as TBAs by the community based on some characteristics that members of the community perceive are required for assisting women with deliveries such as good deliveries outcome, a strong personality, stable emotional state, understanding of the culture, along with the patience that will enable the birthing woman to move through the event with courage, power and ease (Brugemann, Parpinelli, Osis, Ceratti, & Neto 2007; Smith, 2006).

Project detailsContents
 
Number of Pages124 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
ReferenceReference
QuestionnaireQuestionnaire
AppendixAppendix
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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