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KNOWLEDGE AND COMPLIANCE OF EBONYI STATE UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATES TO VOLUNTARY COUNSELLING AND TESTING FOR HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) AND ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS).

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION
 Background to the Study
 Globally about 70 million people have been infected with HIV virus while 35 million people have died of AIDS and 34million people were living with HIV by the end of 2011(WHO, 2014). An estimate of 0.8% of adults aged 15 – 49 years worldwide are living with HIV with variation in epidemics between countries and regions. Sub-Saharan Africa remains most affected with nearly 1 in every 20 adults living with HIV and accounting for 69% of people living with HIV worldwide (WHO, 2014). In Africa, an estimate of 1.7 million young people is infected annually (WHO /UN Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS, 2006). Many youths engage in risky behaviours, with fewer than 10% of the sexually active adolescent females from countries in sub-Saharan Africa reporting condom use (Human Development Report, 2004). In Nigeria 3.4million people are living with HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS, 2013).Thus voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for young people have been recognized as a major priority within the Nigerian HIV- prevention programme. Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the process whereby an individual or couple undergo counselling to enable him/her make an informed choice about being tested for HIV ( Federal Ministry of Health, 2003). VCT is a major strategy designed by programme planners to combat the pandemic of HIV/AIDS in Africa (Bruce and Stellenberg, 2007). It involves community mobilization, education, increase in VCT sites, reduction of stigma, policies that protect human rights, counselling, rapid tests and confidentiality. VCT activities are implemented with other measures like sexual abstinence, marital fidelity, condom use and anti-retroviral drugs. Voluntary HIV test is an active search for HIV among healthy people and is therefore a fundamental aspect of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of HIV infection and AIDS (Park, 2007 and Ikechebelu, Udigwe, Ikechebelu & Imo, 2006). It offers holistic approach that can address HIV in the broader context of people’s lives. HIV screening is advocated for every individual from early teen years of life especially those who are sexually active or exhibit high risk behaviours ( injection - drug users and their sex partners, sex partners of HIV – infected persons and heterosexual persons with more than one sex partners). The age group coverage for voluntary HIV test is as low as 15 years in developing world since there is evidence that 25% of them have initiated sex by then (HDR, 2004). Apart from early exposure, young people are at risk of HIV infection because of lack of skill to negotiate safe sex behaviour and vulnerability to sexual abuse. This has necessitated the campaign on youth friendly programmes to encourage youths know their HIV status. According to WHO (2003), regardless of test result after the first test, routine check continues regularly at least every 6 months, but every 3 months for those that are sexually active. Each HIV test follows the process of pretest counselling, test and post test counselling. Voluntary counselling and testing is being advocated for because it has been shown to enable individuals, whether HIV positive or negative to change their behaviour appropriately (Okojie and Omume, 2004).Healthy lifestyle is achieved during interaction with service providers as the individual understands the need to maintain his or her HIV status. Although knowing HIV status is regarded as an important component of a healthier lifestyle, the decision to undergo VCT is entirely that of the individual being tested (FMOH, 2003). The willingness to do HIV test may be because of HIV services that are accessible, affordable and with observed confidentiality that will increase the clients trust or as routine during antenatal care, for premarital decision, or an institutional requirement. People’s willingness also depends on public awareness programmes that will give understanding of what VCT is.VCT education is one major component in the strategy of voluntary counselling and testing programme, which one is expected to acquire either from formal school or from other sources that include community, mass media and churches. Compliance in VCT for HIV/AIDS is the willingness of an individual to undergo the process of knowing own HIV status correctly. It is influenced by knowledge of the procedure, benefit of the test, perception of the test, cost, and accessibility of the services and fear of positive result. Individual characteristics such as age, gender, social support, personality trait and personal beliefs about health are associated with people’s compliance to medical advice. Rejection of HIV screening has been linked to psychological trauma, infringement on fundamental human rights, fear of living with positive screening and stigmatization at place of work (Omoigberale, Abiodun and Famodu, 2006).

Project detailsContents
 
Number of Pages124 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
ReferenceReference
QuestionnaireQuestionnaire
AppendixAppendix
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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