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Background of the study 

To live, learn and work successfully in an increasingly complex information-rich and knowledge based society, the use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) is necessary. According to the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA,1976)Information Communication Technology (ICT) is the study, design, development, implementation, support and management of computer-based  information systems, particularly software application and computer hardware. It deals with the use of electronic devices to collect, convert and store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are complex and heterogeneous set of goods, applications and services used for producing, distributing, processing and transforming information. Included in this set are outputs of industries such as telecommunications, television and radio broadcasting, computer hardware and software, computer services and electronic media such as the internet, electronic mail, electronic commerce and computer games (Gillian, 2006). Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has the potentials to enrich the quality of Education, reduce the cost of education, expand access to education and educational resources, provide lifelong education, and reduce geographical and other forms of barriers in education(Nwafor,2007).For example, apart from the particular course of study a student is also equipped with such skills as browsing and surfing the internet, Internet shopping/trading, accessing  wide range of information on various fields of interest through the internet. Expensive and scarce textbooks are easily accessed and downloaded at highly reduced rates 2 through the internet too. The use of General System on Mobile Telecommunication (GSM) and Electronic mails have helped to remove geographical barriers and reduce distances in time and space .People  can now stay where they are to seek and get desired information without having to embark on journeys, thereby avoiding transport hazards. ICT holds tremendous potential for improving the lives of every one, including opportunities for employment, education, political empowerment, access to resources and information with a world outside the boundaries of homes. Opportunities presented by the use of ICT are borderless-ranging from classroom instruction ,administration, management, engineering, architecture, broadcasting ,design in Art and craft among others. A fundamental change is taking place in the nature and application of technology in all facets of human endeavors. This change has profound and far reaching implications that any organization which does not queue into this transition will fail. Banks are going cashless, Libraries are going virtual and documents such as Curriculum Vitae are now demanded and carried in soft copies rather than in hard copies which was the practice. ICTs goods and services have diffused at rates which set many records. As reported by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU, 1999) its  goods and services took shorter time to reach comparable percentage of the populace than other technologies, the number of countries connected to the global network has grown from just over 20 in 1990 to more than 200 in July 1999(Dadley,2001). The ICT sector forms what is known today as the knowledge sector and it is the fastest growing area of the global economy. Before the advent of the GSM, ownership of land phone especially in residential quarters was considered a luxury 3 and was essentially for the wealthy and the educated high class, but today the story is different-the cobbler, the peasant farmer, the market woman, the house wife, the school child, the petty traders  now have access to cell phones. Asogwa(2008) states that ‘Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are increasingly shaping educational institutions and the way in which education programs are developed, marketed, instructed, delivered, serviced and evaluated. The growth and development of any nation is hinged on its technological skilled labor force, the technological skills of the work force paves way for creativity, innovation and high productivity. The radical change the world is experiencing today is ICT anchored. Policy makers the world over are actively promoting the growth of ICT sector and seeking to maximize the positive effects. However, there remain noticeable disparities between the extent to which access and skills are available. The benefits of knowledge are not available to a large majority of the world’s population; the digital divide has become a central international development concern. Women’s ability to take advantage of ICT is dependent on conducive policies and enabling environment in their countries to extend communication infrastructure to where women live and increase educational levels. In traditional knowledge systems, women were recognized and respected for their competence and local knowledge on crops, seeds, medicinal plants and health care. There has been considerable lack of understanding and appreciation of power dynamics and gender inequality that is suffered at all levels of society by women (WSIS Declaration 2003).The religious belief and practices of the people of north central Nigeria that puts women in purdah can be seen to be reinforcing traditional forms of power dynamics and hierarchies.ICTs have been used by some women group in 4 Pakistan-a population with similar religious background, as tools for social transformation and gender equality in the examples below. • Health educators use of the radio and the internet to communicate information relating to women’s sexual and reproductive health. • E-commerce initiatives that link women artisans directly to global markets through the internet. • And information sharing on the internet among women groups on how to push gender equality issues. ICTs  have brought employment gains including  for  women, however gender marginalization  are still being reproduced  in the information  economy where men hold the majority of  high-skilled, high value-added  jobs, whereas women  are concentrated in the low skilled lower value-added jobs, work in call centers and  ICT products outlets(Ajayi,2001). In nearly all societies, men and women, boys and girls, have a different status and play different roles. Men and women behave differently, dress differently, have different attitudes and interests, and have different leisure activities. Contrary to traditionally held beliefs that these differences between male and female behavior are biologically or genetically determined, recent researches have revealed that they are to a large extent socially constructed, or based on the concept of gender. The terms Gender and Sex are two different concepts that are often mistaken. While Sex is biologically determined, Gender is socially assigned. Gender refers to those ,roles and expectations of men and women which a particular  society has determined and assigned to  males and females.           Acceptance of gender role stereotypes can limit a person’s life aspirations, potentials, abilities etc. There is a need to remove any stereotypes that people believe are related to gender and find 5 ways to promote equality. Researches have shown that countries that have raised the status of their women educationally, socially, politically and economically, generally enjoy a high standard of living compared with countries where the women remain largely illiterate and confined to home keeping (retrieved) Gender mindset still plays very prominent role in modern society especially in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics education (STEM).Professor Allele Williams once described Gender stereotyping as a hidden curriculum that sends signals to girls to conform with role expectations. In most societies for example, humility, submissiveness, etc are considered feminine behavior and women are expected to behave that way. Men, on the other hand, are expected to be dominant and aggressive. Other determinants of gender may include dress, gestures, occupation, social network, and especially the roles played by them(Yoloye,1998)As reported by the American Association of University Women(AAUW,1999) women’s achievement in Science and Mathematics in Secondary School has been poor compared with the men. While more males have been found in Mathematics and Physical science courses, both sexes are almost equally represented in Biological Sciences, fewer number of  women  were found in Science careers and training program in schools(Feshbech,2000) The Millennium Development Goal (MDG3) is on ensuring gender equality and woman empowerment. Ensuring gender equality and women empowerment, is not only of intrinsic value in itself, but also central to the realization of all the other MDGs. This calls for an understanding of the interplay between gender and school enrolment, retention, achievement and choice of course of study. Resolutions of gender issues are basic for the achievement of sustainable development. Some people have come to erroneously believe that 6 gender issues are challenges to accepted norms and values of marriage, family and religion and as such believe that gender issues should be addressed only within the Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development-This is an error. In career choice ,women are discouraged from choosing certain professions on the ground that such choices will conflict with there chances to getting married, marriage responsibilities, motherhood etc. Women who  veered into such fields considered as the exclusive reserve of the masculine gender are sometimes ridiculed and face unpleasant challenges. ICT Skills refer to those skills that enable one to use the computer, computer networks, wired and wireless networks, telecommunication networks and microelectronics for gathering, processing, storing retrieving and disseminating information. IT and information skills are frequently referred to as Information & Communication Technology (ICT) Skills because they are interconnected. Specific skill-need varies from subject area to subject area with some overlapping with others. Based on the curriculum (NCCE Minimum standard) the skills include those skills that are required in these four areas: 1) Computer Basics 2) Microsoft Word 3) Excel-Electronic Spreadsheet 4) The Internet The National Commission For Colleges of Education (NCCE) in its minimum standards for  teacher  trainees as contained in its Mission and vision statement  emphasizes the  desire to ‘Produce  professionals who can combine the use of conventional teaching strategies and  the world’s unfolding ICT ,in the generation and imparting of knowledge ,attitudes and skills’. In other words every 7 practicing teacher must be ICT compliant as it relates to the practice of the profession. To this end, Computer Study is offered as a compulsory course in all the Colleges of Education irrespective of the students’ gender and Course of study. In addition, the NCCE in its Minimum Standards that came into operation in January 2010, came out with a greater resolve to ensure that computer literacy can no longer be ignored because it plays vital role in achieving technological development. Here is an excerpt: Nigeria cannot afford to ignore the role  which computer literacy plays in achieving the national goal of technological development. Hence she has resolved to introduce computer education in primary and secondary schools. For meaningful teaching of computer science in our primary and secondary schools, there is a need to produce professional teachers in the discipline. Hitherto there has been provision for the training in computer science in the universities and the polytechnics ,but little attention was paid to the training of teachers in computer education. There is now a greater need for the Colleges of Education to offer computer studies as a subject in the program of professional preparation of teachers. The objectives of Computer Study courses include • Teach computer studies at the Primary and Secondary school levels. • Write programs and process data with maximum speed and accuracy. • Demonstrate reasonably high level of competence in preparation for further studies in computer education. • Motivate pupils’ interest in the study of computer by appropriately using ICT teaching/learning strategies. • Apply the use of computer as aid in the daily life activities. (NCCE Minimum Standards,2010 p.40) 8 The Education Trust Fund (ETF) through some private partnership arrangements establishes ICT centers /cafes within the Federal Colleges of Education (FCEs) where students go to browse the internet free. They are also encouraged to undertake short term training courses (3months) on ICT Skill acquisition at subsidized rate at the end of which they are issued certificates. There are also ICT labs built and equipped by the ETF for some departments such as General Studies (GST), Computer Education and the Sciences where students receive lectures. The internet services are expected to be accessible to both lecturers and students in their offices, staff quarters and hostels. But at the moment that is still far from realization as these services can only be accessed from the cafes, labs (not always),the Provost’s office and Deputy Provost’s office(sometimes) for now. Students are also made to undertake the Micro-Teaching course compulsorily as part of the training given to them. This involves the students teaching under observance of designated lecturers and fellow students, during this exercise the students are expected to use power point presentation and some instructional materials which are expected to be produced by the students. This exercise is expected to test students’ knowledge in the course of study, teaching skills, applicability of ICT skills in the production of instructional materials and lesson presentation.

Review project detailsComments
Number of Pages84 pages
Chapter one (1)Yes  Introduction
Chapter two (2)Yes  Literature review
Chapter three (3) Yes methodology
Chapter  four (4) Yes  Data analysis
Chapter  five (5) Yes Summary,discussion & recommendations
ReferenceYes Reference
QuestionnaireYes Questionnaire
Appendixyes Appendix
Chapter summaryyes 1 to 5 chapters
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