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 The public sector refers to all organizations that exists as part of government machinery for implementing policy decisions and delivering services that are of value to citizens. It is a mandatory institution under the Nigerian Constitution of 1999. Chapter VI of the constitution, Executive, Part 1 (D) and part II (c) provides for a public service at the Federal and State levels of government. The public sector in Nigeria is made up of the civil service, which is often referred to as the core service and is composed of line ministries and extra ministerial agencies and the public bureaucracy which is composed of the enlarged public service, including service of the state and National Assemblies, the judiciary, armed forces, police, other security agencies, paramilitary services, parastatals and agencies. Okeke (2000) stressed that “Nigeria has a large public sector running into millions of personnel”. Their major function is to implement government policies and programs. While it is true that some government do not have any programs for the common good, the public sector has not successfully implemented the policies and program of those that did. Many civil servants found it easier to align themselves with the government of the day and participate in treasury looting that has reduced Nigeria to an embarrassment among the comity of serious nations. So, why is the public sector so inefficient? According to Okeke (2000) “Public sector of Nigerian economy has been growing larger and larger over the years. Government functions have since advanced beyond the mere maintenance of law and order to the provisions of infrastructure, economic stability and growth management of public resources. The enlarged activities of government coupled with the need for efficiency calls for an enlarged and appropriate government supervision system. This is in order to accommodate the growth and complexity of government functions. According to Andersen L.B. (2006) supervision is a key to successful and dynamic public sector based programs, enhancing an organisation’s ability to reach its mission and objectives, sustain its programs, keep staff trained, interested and motivated involve the departments, monitor supplies and maintain quality and costs”. Ideally, supervision should be provided at all levels of the organisation. When effective, supervision helps an organization strengthen its overall results, improve the quality of the program and most important, meet the need of its clients. Unfortunately, it is often the least understood and most ineffectively used management tool. Under the more conventional view of supervision, a staff’s past performance is inspected, critically assessed and mistakes are pointed out. This limited approach misses an important opportunity to review performance for the purpose of improving work processes and ensuring the provision of quality services. Aijala K. (2001) supervision is a vital, personal link between the service provider, paid or voluntary, and the Organisation. It is the interactive process in which the organisation’s goals and values are communicated and interpreted to workers and they, in turn, are guided and supported to help reach those goals. By helping service providers understand their responsibilities, improve their performance and organizing resources to assist them, supportive supervision helps staff to become more effective. In the process, satisfaction and commitment to the Organisation and its mission are built. A supervisor ensures that those he/she supervises have a detailed job description, the requisite skills and knowledge to execute the job, a detailed workplan with delineated responsibilities and timeliness, a performance improvement plan, a system for feedback and incentives, appropriate resources and connections to the ministry or department. Brewer G.A. (2005) stressed that “there are criteria for supervisors. A supervisor must possess organizational, interpersonal and professional skills. He/she must have the ability to communicate, listen and observe, guide, teach, install confidence, motivate, handle interpersonal problems, obtain necessary resources, organize appropriate training, delegate responsibility, manage time and monitor supplies. The efforts of working force can be made fruitful only when they are properly supervised. Supervision raises the morale and confidence stimulates better co-operation and coordination and increases the productivity of the employed. Thus prosperity of both employer and employee can be secured through effective and efficient supervision. In the absence of supervision each worker will do what he likes. Supervision ensures the continuity of work operation and work performance. It ensures steady flow of output according to plans. It also ensures the utilization of resources in the best interest of the Organisation. It ensures and guarantees the proper functioning of the work units. To sum up, we may say that supervision is a universal activity that is required at all levels of management. It is an important element of management process towards the achievement of organizational goals.

Project detailsContents
Number of Pages144 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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