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IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WILDLIFE RESOURCE CONSERVATION IN NSUKKA AGRICULTURAL ZONE OF ENUGU STATE.

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION
 Background of the study 
 Agriculture produces the basic necessities for human survival. It is the production of crops and rearing of livestock for man’s benefit (Tatathi, Naik and Jalgaonkar, 2011). It forms the basis for industrial and economic development (steward, 2000). It includes the raising of animals and cultivation of crops for food, fibre, bio-fuel, drugs and other products meant for sustainability of human life. In Nigeria, agriculture provides a source of employment for more than 70% of her population and contributes 33.69% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (National Bureau of statistics, 2013). The major agricultural produce in Nigeria are Rice, Cowpea, Millet, Sorghum, Maize, Palm Oil, Rubber, Goat, Sheep, Pig, Poultry, Timber and wildlife, among others. Apart from crop production and domestication of livestock, agriculture also involves conservation of wildlife. Wildlife is one of the ecological capitals comprising every form of life from the tiniest microbes to the mightiest beast and the ecosystems of which they are part of (Osinem, 2005). According to the International Hunter Education Association (2003) wildlife refers to plant and animals that are not normally domesticated by man but are essential for his survival. They are living things that can die and be replaced by others of their type. In the context of this study, wildlife refers to wild animals only. Osinem (2005) stated that wild animals provide humanity with a cornucopia of goods and services for food, energy and materials to genes which protect the crops and heal diseases. The producte from wild animals are regarded as wildlife resources. Wildlife resources are those products or materials obtained from wild animals to satisfy specific needs of man (Preres, 2001). Wildlife resources include such products like fibre, food, fuel, meat, industrial raw materials like hide and skin, hoof and timber, among others (Osinem and Mama, 2008). According to the authors, wildlife resources have nutritional, economic, health, ecological, cultural and religious importance to the users. It is a source of income and a means of livelihood to humanity. Almost all forms of wildlife resources are subject to capture or control by man who depend on them for survival. Osinem and Mama (2008) indicated that wildlife resource exists in various forms as mammals, reptiles, birds, aquatics and arachnids. The authors further explained that a variety of wildlife depend on vegetation for their existence and survival. Machl et al, (2007) stated that tropical cyclones have the potentials to devastate wide expanse of vegetation, causing loss of wildlife resources. Conservation of wildlife resources is dependent on climate. Climate is the average weather condition of a place taken over a long period of time (American Meteorological Society AMS, 2011). Weather as a climate variable is the atmospheric condition determining the intensity of sunshine and amount of rainfall in a given environment. Climate defines the measures of temperature, humidity, pressure, wind, rainfall, sunshine intensity in a given area over a long period of time (Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC, 2007). Farmers suffer a lot of crop and animal failure whenever there are changes in rainfall pattern and change in climate in general. Climate change refers to a noticeable variation in weather condition which last for a decade or more affecting both plants and animals in their environment and usually caused by nature and human activities. IPCC (2007) explained climate change as a significant variation that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. Lemke (2006) defined climate change as a complete variation in the average state of the atmosphere over time, ranging from decades to millions of years in a region or across the entire globe which can be caused by internal and external forces from space or human activities. Ozor (2009) explained climate change as a variation in weather over time, which could be due to natural variability or as a result of human activity. Climate change has some effects on the frequency, intensity and duration of extreme weather events which could negatively affect agricultural production in some of the most vulnerable areas. Wildlife resources are generally more vulnerable to climate change than other sectors of the economy like education and manufacturing sector. Vulnerability is the extent to which climate change may damage or harm a system (IPCC, 2007). In Nigeria, the vulnerability of wildlife to climate change can be seen in terms of climatic impact on wildlife habitat and forages. Impact refers to an immediate and strong effect of something or somebody on another thing or person after an encounter (Gadby, 2007). It is the difference made or outcome after an event (Championing Voluntary and Civic Society (CVCS, 2013). It is a measure of the tangible and intangible effects (consequence) of one thing or entity, action or influence upon another. It is more-or-less the observed differences between the past and present or future state of an object after the effect of change (IPCC, 2017). Impact in this study is the noticeable effect of climate change on wildlife conservation. It is however, important to note that climate change does not have the same impact on all parts of the world equally and some of the changes are positive (Ajaero, Akukwe and Asuoha, 2009). According to the authors, a normal climate event such as normal and adequate rainfall, normal temperature and sunshine favour high growth of wildlife in a breeding season. They further stressed that this positively increases the availability and sustainable supply of wildlife resource product to human beings. The normal climate also favours the growth of wildlife habitat which is very essential in wildlife resource conservation. This agree with the opinion of Osinem (2005) who noted that any effort made to ensure survival of wildlife resources requires first growing and protecting wildlife habitat. Furthermore, the author affirmed that extreme weather events such as flooding, drought, heat stress, tornadoes among others may drastically result in death and migration of wildlife, lose of forages, habitat destruction and starvation of wildlife which may also lead to extinction of the said species. To ensure sustainability of wildlife resource for man’s use, there is need for their conservation. Conservation deals with the wise use of any material or natural resources to ensure its adequate use and reduce the disappearance (extinction) of such resources (Irandu, 2003). With reference to wildlife, Jibowo (2005) explained that wildlife conservation is the art of making the land produce valuable population of animals. This definition implies that wildlife conservation focuses on the control of pest population to limit the negative effects on wildlife. Therefore, in addition to making the environment conducive, wildlife conservation equally involves direct population management (control of harvest, transporting) and indirect management of population through habitat manipulation to favour target species (Egwuma, 2013). Wildlife conservation is also defined as the practice of protecting endangered plant and animal species and their habitats, (Baldus, Kibonde and Siege 2003). Wildlife conservation is the wise use of wildlife resource in a way that it will be available to the present and the future generation (Osinem, 2005). Osinem and Mama (2008) emphasized that wildlife conservation efforts is meaningful when the citizens appreciate the positive values of wildlife and the important role it plays in the maintenance of delicate balance of nature. It is therefore noted that wildlife conservation is very crucial to make the resources available for future generations. To ensure that wildlife resources are available for future generations through conservation, its sustainability is necessary in every part of the world including Nsukka Agricultural Zone.

Project detailsContents
 
Number of Pages76 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
ReferenceReference
QuestionnaireQuestionnaire
AppendixAppendix
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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