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 Background to the Study 
 Care about the optimal well-being of children and women are global. Wright (1992) stressed that United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) initiated the programme on child survival and protection in 1947. This was because of the suffering of children as a result of the World War II in 1939. Wright pointed out that the programme was restricted to the developed countries and further emphasized that in recognition of the relevance this organization has to the survival and protection of children, the United Nation’s (UN) General Assembly in an interim decision in 1950 extended UNICEF mandate to concentrate on the needs of children in the developing countries. UNICEF (1992) revealed that Nigeria and UNICEF have been working together since 1951 on the programme to improve the well-being of children and women in the country. The early thrust of UNICEF cooperation centered on cash grants and technical support to primary education, health and social development. According to UNICEF, special allocation of US $100 million was made in 1980 for a phase restructuring of Primary Health Care(PHC) to reflect the new national policy of decentralization of health care services. The emphasis then was more on the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) at the grassroots. The EPI in Nigeria is currently referred to as National Programme on Immunization (NPI). Bland and Clement (1998) traced the idea of immunization to Edward Jenner who in 1796 demonstrated that scratching cowpox virus on the skin produced immunity. Based on this discovery immunization programme was developed andtoday it is accepted worldwide. World Health Organization – WHO (1980) attested that following the discovery of this vaccine by Edward Jenner, mankind was saved from dreaded diseases. Jenner’s effort was a challenge to other scientist to produce vaccines which led to the eradication of small pox globally, elimination of polio from western hemisphere and major reduction in the incidence of other preventable diseases in the United States (Bland & Clement, 1998). Based on this, WHO developed its plans for world-wide immunization programme which include the eradication of poliomyelitis (paralysis of one or more of the limbs by the polio virus) from the world by the year 2000. In order to attain the desired result, the Federal Ministry of Health – FMOH (2000) adopted EPI in 1978 and launched it in 1979, with the target of achieving 60 per cent immunization coverage by the year 1984. A national survey to determine the achievement was conducted by the FMOH at the end of 1984, but the results showed a very low coverage ranging from 20-29 per cent at the end of the period. The low coverage was attributed to poor management and implementation strategies.

Project detailsContents
Number of Pages104 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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