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 The inevitable and disastrous consequence of crude oil pollution for the biotic and abiotic components of the ecosystem has been a major source of concern to the government and people living in oil producing and industrialized countries. This had led to ethnic and regional crises in the Niger Delta region that generated significant tension between them and the multinational oil companies operating in the region (Vidal, 2010).Crude oil exploration, production and transportation in the Niger Delta region have increased tremendously since its discovery in Nigeria in 1956 and has become a veritable source of economic growth and the main stay of the Nigerian economy (Okoh, 2006).The global scale of oil production is staggering and its demand is in the order of 3.25 x 109 tones or 3.8 x 1012 liters per year and much of it is transported thousands of kilometers before it is used (Prince and Lessard, 2004). Crude oil is a complex mixture of organic compounds including volatile aromatic fractions and less volatile aliphatic fractions. The main constituents of crude oil are the elements hydrogen (10 – 40%) and carbon (83 - 87%). Various types of crude oil contain small quantities of sulphur, nitrogen, oxygen and trace metals such as vanadium, nickel, iron and copper which are not usually found in refined petroleum (Atlas and Bartha, 1973). Individual chemical composition of each crude petroleum however, depends on its origin and location and has a unique mixture of molecules which defines its physical and chemical properties. Crude oil has been part of the biosphere for millennia and has been used since ancient times in one form or the other and has risen in importance due to rise in commercial aviation, invention of internal combustion engines and the increasing use of pesticides, fertilizers and plastics which are mostly made from oil (Okoh, 2006). Soil is an extremely complex, dynamic and living medium, formed by mineral particles, organic matter, water, air and living organisms. It establishes the interface between earth, air and water and performs many vital functions. The importance of soil for the survival of plants has become apparent due to numerous services it renders, ranging from filtration of ground water, removal of pathogens, degradation of organics, recycling of nutrients on which agriculture thrives and provision of raw materials for industries which are of economic value. Human activities such as the production, transportation, storage and sometimes vandalization of oil facilities accidentally release large quantities of crude oil and its fractions to marine and terrestrial environments thereby posing a long term threat to the soil and the services it renders (Blum, 1997).

Review project detailsComments
Number of Pages66 pages
Chapter one (1)Yes  Introduction
Chapter two (2)Yes  Literature review
Chapter three (3) Yes methodology
Chapter  four (4) Yes  Data analysis
Chapter  five (5) Yes Summary,discussion & recommendations
ReferenceYes Reference
QuestionnaireYes Questionnaire
Appendixyes Appendix
Chapter summaryyes 1 to 5 chapters
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