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 The study investigated the effects of industrial effluents discharges on stream water quality in Onitsha urban area of Anambra State. Effluents quality assessment was carried out on samples collected at eight (8) locations of the sampled industries while water quality assessment was carried out first on three (3) samples collected upstream or at control sites as well as on eight (8) samples collected at discharge locations in Onitsha urban area in 2015. The control sites were located upstream 500 meters before contact with discharge effluents. The physico-chemical and microbiological parameters analyzed were Temperature (T), pH (Hydrogen ion concentration), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Turbidity, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Magnesium (Mg), Nitrate (NO3), Iron (Fe), Calcium (Ca), Zinc (Zn), Sodium (Na), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), Total Heterotrophic Counts (THC) and Total Coliform Group (TCG). The results of the analyses revealed significant concentration of many dissolved salts, heavy metals and pathogenic organisms in the water samples due to effluents intrusion. Discharged effluents deviate radically from the WHO(2011) standards: Temperature ranged from 290C to 360C, TDS ranged from 0.7mg/l to 6.10mg/l, DO ranged from 35mg/l to 143.6mg/l, Turbidity ranged from 100ntu to 400ntu, BOD ranged from 2.06mg/l to 41.9mg/l, COD ranged from 2.08mg/l to 53.9mg/l, Mg ranged from 0.12mg/l to 3.09mg/. These values were above WHO (2011) standard limits for drinking water while others like pH which ranged from 5.5 to 12.0, Ca which ranged from 0.60mg/l to 8.24mg/l, Zn ranged from 0.01mg/l to 0.70mg/l, Na ranged from 0.14mg/l to 2.69mg/l, and Cu which ranged from 0.02mg/l to 1.68mg/l were below WHO (2011) recommended standards for drinking water. The microbiological parameters like Total Heterotrophic Counts and Total Coliform Groups are highly above WHO standards. The analysis revealed statistical significant differences between the water samples at control and the water samples at discharge locations. MANOVA was used as a test instrument in this study because it allows for maximum interactions between all the variables. Taken together the findings show that there are contaminations of the streams investigated by industrial effluents and that the stream waters are not safe for drinking purposes. Appropriate management measures were suggested to minimize effluents contamination of surface water in the study area.

Project detailsContents
Number of Pages122 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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