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 1.1 Background
 ‘Talia’ is a Hausa name for pasta (noodles). It consists of thin ribbons or strips of dough locally made from durum wheat semolina and other cereals using manual cold extrusion and drying. ‘Talia’ was probably introduced into Kano many centuries through Trans Saharan Mediterranean trade (Anon, 2012c). The word ‘talia’ was derived from the Italian Pasta called tagliatelle, a type of pasta from Emilia-Romagna and Marches, region of Italy. Individual pieces of tagliatelle are long flat ribbons that are similar in shape to fettuccine and are typically about 0.6cm to 1cm diameter (Italian trade commission, 2009). According to Italian trade commission (2009), tagliatelle was created by a talented court chef, who was inspired by Lucrezia of Este’s hairdo on the occasion of her marriage to Annibale II Bentivoglio in 1487. The recipe was called tagliolini di pasta esugo, alla maniera di zafiran (meaning tagliolini of pasta and sauce in the manner of Zafiran) and tagliatelle has since then become a more common food. ‘Talia’ is a common staple consumed by a large section of the rural poor in northern Nigeria. It can be prepared with other ingredients like tomatoes, oil, and meat/fish, in the form of ‘Jollof’ or white cooked with groundnut oil and spices. The later is the most commonly served due to economic reasons. Apart from being prepared and eaten in the homes, ‘talia’ is also hawked around schools and market places as street or fast foods. Recent advances in the manufacturing and processing of pasta (noodles) did not have much effect on the consumption rate of ‘talia’ among the Northern natives, probably because ‘talia’ is generally affordable (Anon, 2012c). ‘Talia’ being a cereal based product, has high carbohydrate content (65%) and low protein content (9%) (USDA, 1974). According to Giese (1992), the nutritional content of pasta is widely based on the ingredients used in its preparation and added sauces. Limiting nutrients in pasta can be augmented by adding foods rich in such nutrients to the base ingredients (wheat semolina) otherwise known as food to food fortification. Wu et al. (2001) reported increase in protein content of spaghetti fortified with corn gluten meal. There was an increase in protein content of macaroni (12.1%-14.2%) when substituted with cellulose-protein complexes (Oifat et al., 1993). Stefania et al. (2010) recorded increase in protein content of semolina spaghetti with legume flour. Most staple foods of the Northern rural poor are cereal based. These include ‘talia’ ‘tuwo’ ‘masa’, ‘sinasir’, ndaleyi’, ‘madidi’, ‘capa’ among others. Talia a cereal based food is limiting in protein and dietary fibre. To improve the protein and dietary fibre contents of talia therefore, there is need to incorporate foods rich in these nutrients into talia. Okara, a by-product of the soymilk industries, but rich in protein (24%) according to Rinaldi et al.(2000), Glutamic acid (0.57g), Aspartic acid (0.36g) and Lysine (0.212g) as recorded by Anon (2015) and Detarium microcarpum an indigenous legume and a good source of soluble dietary fibre (50g per 100g dry matter)(Ene-Obong and Carnovoule,1982), can be added to the base ingredients to produce enriched ‘talia’ thus addressing these nutrients’ deficiencies. Composite flour technologies initially refer to the process of mixing wheat flour with other cereals and legume flours for making bread and biscuit. However, the term can also be used in regard to mixing of non-wheat flours, roots and tubers, legumes or other raw materials (Dendy, 1992). Blending wheat flour with locally available cereal and root crops would be desirable to encourage the agricultural sector and reduce wheat importation in many developing countries. In Africa, there has been an ever-increasing demand for wheat products such as bread and pasta. Africa is not a major wheat-growing region, but produces large quantities of other cereals such as sorghum and millets. It has been reported that replacing wheat with 20% or 30% non wheat flour for bakery products would result in an annual estimated savings in foreign currency of US $320 million and US $480 million respectively (FAO, 1982). In addition, nutritional enhancement is another goal that is frequently addressed in the development of flour blends. Thus, composite flour technology holds excellent promise for developing countries. Although, actual consumer trials have been rare, products made with composite flour have been well accepted in Nigeria, Kenya, Colombia, Senegal, Sri Lanka and Sudan (Dendy, 1992). Sorghum is one of the lesser used cereal in Nigeria. Sorghum is gluten free and the starch contains 100% amylopectin. These make sorghum a good substitute for wheat flour (Miche et al., 1977). Therefore, this work seeks to determine the optimal level of wheat substitution with sorghum, okara, and Detarium microcarpum flours in formulating acceptable ‘talia’ pasta.

Project detailsContents
Number of Pages98 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
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