Type Here to Get Search Results !



 1.1 Background of the Study
 Food insecurity which is felt in most developing nations including Nigeria over the years has accentuated the already critical animal protein deficiency among human populations. High cost of livestock and poultry has limited the capacity of an average Nigerian to consume adequate quantity and quality of animal protein (Hamzat et al., 2003). Emeruwah (1999), and Ojewola, et al. (2004) prescribed massive production of animals with short reproduction cycles such as pigs, rabbits and poultry as the only remedy to the acute animal protein shortage in Nigeria. This however, has undoubtedly spurred research efforts in the direction of these animals that offer the highest turn-over rate and the quickest return on investment. Obviously, rabbit meat is not popular in Nigeria and its commercialization is limited by unknown factors. Pigs on the other hand suffer religious alienation. Thus, poultry has been the animal of choice (Sanni and Ogundipe, 2003). Although, production of local chicken is evident, large scale, medium scale and the back-yard poultry production enterprises are gaining ground in Nigeria as producers now mostly rear more productive exotic broiler and layer types of chicken which have shown considerable levels of adaptation to the prevailing environmental conditions. Okpeku, et al. (2003) noted that the exotic chickens require expensive inputs as a result of which, it is becoming increasingly difficult to sustain the poultry industry over the years under a poor economy .The prevalent high exchange rate of the naira to foreign currency needed for importation of parent stock and some feed ingredients not found locally is not helping matters. Onyimonyi and Onukwufor (2003) opined that the ban on importation of poultry meat and egg by Nigerian government may bring to an end the era of egg glut and low market for locally produced poultry meat and above all, encourage local production of chicken. Although, their assumptions appear to be the case, poultry meat and egg are apparently becoming ostentatious. The Smallholder Family Poultry Concept for Food Security and Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria has no doubt shown how other local poultry resources can improve rural livelihood (Sonaiya, 2002b). Therefore, the emphasis on the need to consider other poultry resources while combating animal protein shortage in Nigeria has formed the backbone of this study. Turkey farming is very popular in the Western countries. The major producing countries are the United States of America, Germany, France, Italy, Netherlands and the United Kingdom. In 2004, the estimated world turkey meat production was 4.94 million tonnes (Central Poultry Development Organization, 2008). However, Nigeria’s contribution to the above statistic is not known. Commercial breeds and strains of turkeys such as Broad Breasted Bronze, Broad Breasted White, White Nicholas 300, Big-6, Hybrid Large White and a host of others have been developed by University Research Stations and reputable commercial turkey breeding companies in the Western world. Strong preference and elaborate research reports have been focused on these modern turkeys as a result of which they have been highly bred for intensive production. There are however, other types that thrive as scavengers under the extensive system of production practiced in localities of developing countries. They roam about, feeding on fresh grasses, insects, worms and snails. These genetically undeveloped, self-reliant, heat tolerant and rugged types are the least studied of all turkeys. Little effort has so far been directed at improving their productivity under free-range condition (Abeke and Ubani, 2008). Research reports on them are therefore scanty or non-existent (Zahraddeen, et al., 2005). Commercial turkey production in Nigeria is still rudimentary. The reason for this apparent low production seems to be due to lack of appreciation of its potential role in meat production and national economy or perhaps lack of understanding and knowledge of its management and production requirements (Abeke and Ubani, 2008). In Nigeria, turkey is a premium bird. Both local and exotic breeds are highly valued. Although some level of commercial production is evident, small stock-holder producers dominate the turkey industry. Commercial producers develop their flock structures with prolific exotic “broiler” strain. Back-yard and medium scale farmers operate with local types and exotic broiler strains in small flock units. One of the major challenges facing turkey production in Nigeria and other developing countries is the low capability of the species to reproduce by natural mating. Breeders who rely on natural mating procedures often encounter poor results due to the clumsy nature of the toms as a reproductive partner. Modern turkey hens throughout the world are bred by artificial insemination. This is not because of the genetic merit to be gained, but primarily because the size and conformation of the male in terms of the extensive development of pectoral muscles arrived at during genetic selection for weight gain, culminated in diminished libido and reduced ability to perform during natural mating (Sexton, 1982; Burke, 1984). Burke (1984) further observed that modern toms lack the coordination and dexterity to accomplish sufficient mating to assure high fertility. Partial completion of the mating act even without transfer of semen to the female results in variable periods of sexual refractoriness during which time hens normally will not re -mate. The development of artificial insemination technology over the past decades has resulted in some significant advances in poultry breeding. The objective of artificial insemination programme is however not just to produce fertile eggs but to produce viable poults (Bakst, 1993). The US turkey industry relies on artificial insemination for the production of 300 million turkeys annually. Therefore, breeder fertility has been implicated to be of utmost importance to the overall success of the turkey industry. This is based on the realization that even the best incubators and hatchery management procedures cannot produce chicks from infertile eggs (Keith, 2008). In Nigeria, breeder flock produces high percentage of infertile eggs even with the recommended mating ratio of

Project detailsContents
Number of Pages147 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


All  listed topics on our website are available project materials in PDF and MS word files, well supervised and approved by lecturers who are intellectual in their various fields of discipline,  documented to assist you with complete, quality and well organized researched work.  if you can't find what you're looking for feel free to contact us. 

Feel free to contact us chat with us on WhatsApp
Hello, How can I help you? ...
Click me to start the chat...