Type Here to Get Search Results !

EFFECT OF BIOCHAR ON AUTOTROPHIC NITRIFIERS IN CRUDE OIL-CONTAMINATED SOIL

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW 

1.1 Introduction 
 The Niger Delta area is the hub of crude oil production and processing activities in Nigeria. It is also known to have one of the largest wet lands, encompassing over 20,000 km2 in Southern Nigeria (Obire and Anyanwu, 2008). The region is also regarded as one of the richest part of Nigeria in terms of natural resources, which include large oil and gas deposits, as well as vast forests, suitable agricultural land and abundant fish resources. Despite the tremendous natural and human resources base, a report from the World Bank showed that the region’s potential for sustainable development remains unfulfilled and its future is being threatened by diverse environmental problems of which oil pollution is most paramount (Obire and Anyanwu, 2008). The Niger Delta ecosystem is subject to man-induced changes and seriously threatened by increasing environmental deterioration. The aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems of the region face increasing ecological and toxicological problems from the release of petroleum pollutants (John et al., 2012). Crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable and viscous liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface (Guerriero et al., 2011). It is recovered mostly through oil drilling. It is refined and separated, most easily by boiling point, into a large number of consumer products, from gasoline and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals (Adel, 2012). Crude oil is often attributed as the "Mother of all Commodities" because of its importance in the manufacture of a wide variety of materials (Adel, 2012). The economy of Nigeria is largely dependent on crude oil tapped from the Niger Delta region through the operations of the petroleum industry which is involved in the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often with oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing petroleum products (Alinnor et al., 2014; Onwurah et al., 2007). Because crude oil is a naturally occurring substance, its presence in the environment need not be the result of human causes such as accidents and routine activities (seismic exploration, drilling, extraction, refining and combustion). Regardless of source, crude oil's effects when released into the environment are similar. This is because some components of crude oil are carcinogenic and cultivated plants in the soil will absorb it and this is transferred to man through the food chain (Alinnor et al., 2014). Crude oil and refined fuel spills from tanker and ship accidents have damaged natural ecosystems in Nigeria, the majority of such cases are found in the Niger Delta of Southern Nigeria and many other places (John and Okpokwasili, 2012).

Project detailsContents
 
Number of Pages158 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
ReferenceReference
QuestionnaireQuestionnaire
AppendixAppendix
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


DOWNLOAD COMPLETE WORK 

All  listed topics on our website are available project materials in PDF and MS word files, well supervised and approved by lecturers who are intellectual in their various fields of discipline,  documented to assist you with complete, quality and well organized researched work.  if you can't find what you're looking for feel free to contact us.





Feel free to contact us chat with us on WhatsApp
Hello, How can I help you? ...
Click me to start the chat...