Type Here to Get Search Results !

ECONOMIC BURDEN OF CANCER AND PAYMENT COPING MECHANISM IN JOS UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL, PLATEAU STATE

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

 Background to the Study
 Cancer is the second leading cause of death and disability in the world followed by heart disease (Mathers & Lancer, 2006). It is a major public health issue and represents a significant burden of disease. Based on the most complete and current data available, cancer accounts for one out of every eight deaths annually (Mathers & Lancer, 2006). The incidence and death rates from cancer remain significantly higher in the developing world including Nigeria (Boyle & Levin, 2008). It is responsible for more deaths than all the deaths due to HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria combined (Okoye, 2010). Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells (Global cancer facts and figures, 2011). It affects different parts of the body and the name of the cancer is given in relation to the part that is affected. It is a global disease that consumes resources. The cost of cancer treatment globally is reported to be high. Records have it that developed countries spend more on cancer treatment than developing countries; for example in the United States of America, the economic burden from cancer is tagged at $895 billion nearly 20% more than heart diseases toll ($753 billion) (John & Ross, 2009). The cancers which account for the largest costs on a global scale, and the greatest burden in developed nations are; lung, colorectal and breast while in low-income countries, the cancer with the greatest impact are cancer of the mouth and oropharynx, cancer of the cervix, breast and prostate cancer (John & Rose, 2009). According to John & Ross (2009) in Economist Intelligence Unit, WHO in 2002 reported that, in developing countries especially Sub-Saharan Africa, cancer control including prevention and detection is much less established with evidence showing that, only 5% of global resources for cancer are spent in the developing world. Owing to the fact that cancers are not detected in the early stages, when many are more easily treatable, treatment is less effective. In developing countries, 80% of patients with cancer progress to incurable stages (Kanavas, 2006). The specific economic challenges relating to cancer control in the developing world are exacerbated by other related phenomena; which include inadequate health systems infrastructure, scarcity of specialized skills (and specialists), high diagnostic and treatment costs, and the resulting inability to provide lengthy, complex personalised treatment regimens and follow-up care as necessary (Axios, 2009). Some of these challenges are caused at least in part by inadequate funding thereby leaving patients, relations and care givers to bear the cost of diagnosis and treatment. Globally, Africa has the least amount of funds voted for cancer management. For instance, Africa with a population of 1,007,766 cancer patients spends $849m while America with a population of 889, 640 cancer cases spends $153,941m (Beaulieu, Bloom, Bloom, 2009). In Nigeria, cost of cancer diagnosis and treatment is borne out of pocket. Out of pocket spending, (OOPS) is the major payment mechanism for health care in Nigeria and this can lead to catastrophic spending especially for the poorest households (Onwuasigwe, 2010). Adebamowo (2007) observed that, clinical services for cancer are grossly inadequate and poorly distributed. Only few centres have functioning radiotherapy equipment. Radiological examinations are generally available; however, access is limited by cost. He further stated that, although chemotherapy is available, high cost prevents most patients from taking advantage of modern regimens. Adewale (2011) commenting in Nigeria health journal opined that, the problem for a poor Nigerian could actually begin with these tests as they are not only done in few centres but can also be quite expensive. Cost is the major reason for non adherence to cancer screening and treatment for the people of low socioeconomic status (Adewale, Lawan & Adesunkani, 2008).When the economic status of the patient is inadequate to meet with the cost of screening and treatment, they look for other payment coping mechanism. Payment coping mechanisms was short term strategy used to cope with the cost of medical care (Adams & Ke, 2008). Payment coping mechanism consists of non-income financing of healthcare; savings, borrowing and selling of assets (WHO, 2008). Although the Nigerian government provides exemption for treatment of malaria in under 5s and pregnant women, there is no exemption for cancer patients; a growing epidemic with largely increasing healthcare cost, especially with its late diagnosis. Cancer like many other known communicable diseases, have not entered the government policy agenda and as such, is not yet integrated into the primary health care system as resolved by the World Health Assembly in 2002. All these reflect the economic burden and inability of most patients to cope with the costs of screening tests and treatment of cancer.

Project detailsContents
 
Number of Pages99 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
ReferenceReference
QuestionnaireQuestionnaire
AppendixAppendix
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


DOWNLOAD COMPLETE WORK 

All  listed topics on our website are available project materials in PDF and MS word files, well supervised and approved by lecturers who are intellectual in their various fields of discipline,  documented to assist you with complete, quality and well organized researched work.  if you can't find what you're looking for feel free to contact us.





Feel free to contact us chat with us on WhatsApp
Hello, How can I help you? ...
Click me to start the chat...