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 Over the years, training has been defined in various ways by different authors. Broad and Newstrom (1992), defined training in the workplace as “the effective and continuing application, by trainees to their jobs, of the knowledge and skills gained in training - both on and off the job.” According to Jackson & Schuler (2003), training refers to improving competencies needed today or very soon. Obisi (2001) defined training as a process through which the skills, talent and knowledge of an employee is enhanced and increased. The term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills and competencies as a result of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful competencies (Wikipedia, 2011). While Nwachukwu (1992) opines that training is an organizational effort aimed at helping an employee to acquire basic skills required for the sufficient execution of the functions for which he was hired. He went further to say that training involves the learning and acquisition of skills needed to perform a particular job or series of jobs. While Obikoya (1996) view training as away to motivate workers to put in their best in their work in order to achieve effectiveness and efficiency in an organisation. Broad and Newstrom also stated that, in their experience with a wide range of organizations, transfer problems nearly always occurs when training employees. Other authors have suggested that as little as 10% of training is transferred to the workplace (Georgenson, 1982), although this level may be higher immediately after training, and decline over time (Newstrom, 1986). Whatever the actual level of transfer of training, when training does not transfer, it is likely that employees will perceive training to be a waste of their time and employers will continue to question the benefit of their investment in training. Training employees do have a significant role in modern business era. Not just to equip them with latest tools the company has implemented, there is a lot more to it (Wikipedia, 2012). According to European Centre for the Development of vocational training (1998), the need for training employees becomes important because of the following; 1. Rapid technological innovations impacting the workplace have made it necessary for people to consistently update their knowledge and skills 2. People have to work in multidimensional areas, which usually demand far more from their area of specialisation. 3. Change in the style of management. 4. Due to non-practical college education. 5. Lack of proper and scientific selection procedure. 6. For career advancement. 7. For higher motivation and productivity. 8. To make the job challenging and interesting. 9. For self and development. 10. For employee motivation and retention. 11. To improve organisational climate. 12. Prevention of obsolescence. 13. To help an organisation to fulfil its future manpower needs. 14. To keep in pace with times. 15. To bridge gap between skills requirement and skills availability. 16. For survival and growth of organisation and nation. A number of authors have addressed the problem of how best to optimize the transfer of training, when best to administer training, what are the basic training needs and what the determinants of effective training are. While the focus of this chapter is specifically on the determinants of effective training, we shall also look at the strategies for improving transfer of training, and various models of the transfer process. Therefore, some of these models will be outlined, an integrated model will be described, and then the specific strategies for optimizing the transfer of training will be presented. Broad and Newstrom (1992) outlined a series of strategies for managing the transfer of training that focused on three time periods (before, during, and after training) and on the responsibilities of three separate organizational roles (the role of the manager, the role of the trainer, and the role of the trainee). Milheim (1994) also presented a model for the transfer of training that included pre-training strategies, strategies for use during training, and post-training strategies. The strategies suggested by these authors highlighted the importance of viewing the transfer of training as a process rather than an outcome. Other authors have developed theoretical models that the examine the impact of different training input variables such as trainee characteristics, training design variables, and work environment factors on the transfer process (Baldwin & Ford, 1988). Successful transfer of training to the workplace is not solely determined by any one factor (such as performance on the training program). The employee’s level of motivation and ability to understand and benefit from their training are important determinants of the individual's learning outcomes. There are also organizational and contextual factors that are necessary requirements for the effective transfer of training. Kozlowski and Salas (1997) proposed a three-level model incorporating the individual level, the team or unit level, and the organizational level, which expanded how the transfer process was conceptualized. Kozlowski and Salas suggested that within each level there are complex processes involved in transfer of training and that there are also processes by which outcomes at one level combine to emerge as higher-level (that is, unit/team or organizational) outcomes. Therefore, it is proposed that an integrated model of the transfer process should examine strategies that can be applied before, during, and after training at the individual, unit/team, and organizational levels. Thayer and Teachout’s (1995) Transfer Training Model focused on several aspects of the training process that affect transfer outcomes. In particular, Thayer and Teachout highlighted the climate for transfer of training, and the transfer-enhancing activities that occurred during training program as important determinants of transfer. Other variables in the Transfer Training Model included individually oriented variables such as trainee ability, trainee self-efficacy, previous knowledge and skill, reactions to training, and the level of understanding. Locus of control, job involvement, and career attitudes were also included as possible influences on the learning process. The main advantage of this model is that it identifies influences at the organizational level (climate for transfer) that influence individual-level outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of successful training practices in large firms. Success in any activity can be thought of in terms of the extent to which an activity achieves its desired objectives. In this respect successful training practices are strategies which provide tangible and intangible benefits for organizations (for example, increased skills and knowledge, required corporate values and attitudes, increased competitiveness, improved employee morale, and more effective employee-manager relations). The study primarily focused on the integration of teaching and learning within the firm, factors which influence firms to recruit existing skills as opposed to developing skills sets within the firm, the use of accredited training and training packages, the development of career structures within firms, the impact of globalization on training and learning practices, and returns on their investments in training.

Project detailsContents
Number of Pages71 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
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