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DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A COMPOST PELLETING MACHINE

CHAPTER ONE:

 INTRODUCTION 

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 

Pelleting has been a popular processing technique in feed manufacturing industries. In basic terms, pelleting converts a finely ground blends of ingredients into dense, free flowing agglomerates (pellet). Pelleting operations are not without cost. It is expensive process in terms of capital and variable cost, but the expense is usually justified in improved plant profit as well as crop growth performance (Stephen, 1985). To this end, a pelleting machine could be described as a device for injecting particulate, granular or pasty feed into holes of a roller/die, and then compacting the feed into a continuous solid rod to be cut-off by a knife at the periphery of the roller/die(Steven, 1985) and (Arora, 2007).The flat die pelleting machine is still in use in certain applications, the ring die pellet mill quickly became the preferred design and consequently adopted by the fertilizer manufacturing industry and has remained the form of pelleting machine of choice today. In addition to the ring die pellet mill, auxiliary equipment have been developed including, conditioners, coolers, dryers, and related processing equipment (Ombu, 2008).According Koh (2007) reported that the art of pelleting can be best described as a complex set of process that converts the finely ground blend of ingredients into dense, free flowing pellets. Before the design and fabrication of pelleting machine, it is necessary to consider some physical and engineering properties of the compost marsh to be pelleted. These include moisture content, bulk density, size, angle of repose and feed formula. These properties are greatly inter-dependent (ASAE 2003). Several studies have been performed on physical properties of various biological materials. Most of these studies evaluate the effect of moisture content, porosity, and angle of repose, coefficient of friction, density and etc on several agricultural products. One of the important results that was obtained is the effect of moisture content. Increasing the moisture content, increases bulk density, angle of repose, and coefficient of friction for woodchip (Ima et al., 2007), compressibility in poultry litter (Bernhart et al., 2008), the filling and emptying angles of repose for cocoa beans (Bart-Plange et al., 2002), coefficient of static friction for Pistachio kernel (Kashaninejad et al., 2005), true density for peanut fruit and kernel (Aydin, 2006) and density and angle of repose for caper fruit (Sessiz et al., 2006), but decreases the true density and porosity for Pistachio kernel (Kashaninejad et al., 2005), Densities in poultry litter (Bernhart et al., 2008), porosity for woodchip (Ima et al., 2007), bulk density for peanut fruit peanut fruit (Aydin, 2006), true density, porosity and the coefficients of static and kinetic friction for caper fruit (Sessiz et al., 2006). Particle size and moisture content significantly affected the pellet density of barley straw, corn Stover and switchgrass but different particle sizes of wheat straw did not produce any significant difference on pellet density (Mani et al., 2006). Bulk density and particle density of peanut hull pellets significantly affected by moisture content (Fasina, 2007). (Fraczek et al., 2006). valuated a computer image analysis method to determine the angle of repose of grains.

Review project detailsComments
 
Number of Pages81 pages
Chapter one (1)Yes  Introduction
Chapter two (2)Yes  Literature review
Chapter three (3) Yes methodology
Chapter  four (4) Yes  Data analysis
Chapter  five (5) Yes Summary,discussion & recommendations
ReferenceYes Reference
QuestionnaireYes Questionnaire
Appendixyes Appendix
Chapter summaryyes 1 to 5 chapters
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