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 Background to the Study
 Crisis has posed a big obstacle to effective club soccer management around the globe. According to O’beirne and Ries (2000), sports (including soccer) organizers and administrators are concerned over the increasing incidences and consequences of crisis, which has become a global phenomenon and poses an obstacle to effective sports management. Napravnik (1993) reported that there is currently an increase in both frequency and seriousness of the act of soccer crises documented throughout the globe especially soccer violence. Wenn (1989) had observed that crises experienced in club soccer are numerous including both violent and non-violent crises. He identified violent crises to include soccer violence, accidents and severe injuries as well as terrorism in soccer arena. Main (1985) had enumerated other types of non-violent crises in club soccer to include boycott of matches, strikes by players and officials for non-payment of salaries, allowances and match bonuses, as well as scandals such as sexual harassment of players and officials. Oyewusi (1991) added other forms of non-violent crises among soccer clubs to include bribery and corruption, racism, and match fixing. Ogujiofor (2000) also added disruptive propaganda, costly mistakes by officials and players, disinformation whereby false information is given intentionally in order to hide the truth and confuse people, and misinformation in which incorrect information is given to distort the fact; as well as protests and demonstrations (Patti, 2008). Many incidents of crises have been recorded among soccer clubs in South-Eastern States. No Violence (2000a) reported on severe accidents and injuries in the violent incident in a match between Jasper United and Enugu Rangers in Onitsha on 11 December, 2000 and (No Violence, 2001) reported on Enymiba Football Cub (F. C.) and Jasper United fans also in Onitsha on 8 May, 2001. Even in the 2007 Globacom Premier Soccer league, Apu (2007) reported many incidents of crises such as boycott of matches, match fixing and crowd violence that left two fans dead and many others injured in the match between Akwa United and Enyimba International F.C.of Aba on 27 March, 2007. Solaja (2007) reported on protests, misinformation, disinformation and match fixing in which the Vice Chairman of Rangers International F.C. of Enugu, Mr. Ray Nnaji protested and alleged a gang-up that led to match fixing against his club in the 2007 Nigerian Premier League. Crises during club soccer matches expose both organisers and other participants to various kinds of risks. Ukwayi (1998) observed that club soccer crises such as violence exposes participants to the risk of accidents, injuries, discomfort, disabilities and damage to

Project detailsContents
Number of Pages124 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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