Type Here to Get Search Results !




Salmonellae are Gram negative, short plump shaped rods, non-lactose fermenting and non-sporulating bacteria, belonging to the family Enterobacteriacea, that has more than 2501 serotypes characterized on the basis of their somatic (0) and flagella (H) antigens (Beers et al.,2004; Todar, 2005). With the exception of Salmonella pullorum and Salmonella gallinarum, all Salmonellae are actively motile. They are also non-capsulated with the exception of Salmonella typhi (Cheesbrough, 2002, Perilla, 2003). The genus was named after Daniel Elmer Salmon, an American veterinary pathologist (FDA/CFSAN, 2009). Salmonella can be divided into two major groups of clinical importance, group one includes members of the genus that are involved as aetiologic agent of typhoid fever (typhoidal Salmonellosis) S. typhi and S. paratyphi. Group two includes members of the genus that are involved as aetiologic agents of food poisoning (non-typhoidal Salmonellosis). Salmonella typhimurium and more recently serotype DT 104, other members are Salmonella agona, Salmonella newport, Salmonella heidelberg, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella hada, and Salmonella dublin (Arora, 2001). Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enteric serotypes typhi commonly presents as a prolonged febrile illness with a paucity of physical signs. The spectrum of the disease varies from mild self-limiting febrile illness to severe disease associated with gastrointestinal bleeding, intestinal perforation, or mental confusion with shock. It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, causing an estimated 16 million new infections and 600,000 deaths each year (Buttler et al., 1991; Bhanu et al., 2011). The incidence of typhoid fever has declined greatly with the provision of clean water and good sewage systems in Europe and USA since the early 20th century, but the disease remains a serious public health problem in developing countries (Bhanu et al., 2011). In India, typhoid fever is highly endemic, with the southern provinces most heavily affected. In a study conducted in Dong thap province in 1995 and 1996, the incidence of confirmed serotype typhi infection was 198 per 100,000 populations for all ages (Bhanu et al., 2011). The incidence of typhoid fever was high (>100 cases per 100,000 populations per year), in South Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and possibly Southern Africa, Medium (10-100 cases per 100,000) in the rest of Asia, Africa, Latin America, and Oceania (Abdurrahman et al., 1979). Isolation of serotype S. typhi from blood, urine or stool is the most reliable means of confirming an infection. However, this requires laboratory equipments and technical training that are beyond the means of most primary health care facilities in developing world (Rubin et al., 1990). Different techniques are used in diagnosis of typhoid fever, including blood culture, stool culture, rectal swab culture, urine culture, widal test, Elisa and immunofluoresence but widal test blood and stool cultures remains the only universally practiced diagnostic procedures because other methods are either invasive, have failed to prove their utility or are more expensive (Abdul et al., 1999; Beer et al., 2004).

Project detailsContents
Number of Pages109 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


All  listed topics on our website are available project materials in PDF and MS word files, well supervised and approved by lecturers who are intellectual in their various fields of discipline,  documented to assist you with complete, quality and well organized researched work.  if you can't find what you're looking for feel free to contact us.

Feel free to contact us chat with us on WhatsApp
Hello, How can I help you? ...
Click me to start the chat...