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COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF BAMBARA NUT WASTE AND DRY BREWERS SPENT GRAIN AS DRY SEASON FEED SUPPLEMENTS FOR WEST AFRICAN DWARF SHEEP

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION
 1.1 BACKGROUND
 The need to produce food especially animal protein to feed the ever increasing human population is a major problem in developing countries. Livestock account for one third of Nigeria’s agricultural GDP, providing income, employment, food, fiber, manure and transport. They are also a major source of government revenue (Babatunde, 1998). Livestock especially ruminants, are the most efficient users of uncultivated land and can contribute substantially to crop production. Proteins are very essential for the continued existence of man and there is a strong agreement that animal protein products such as meat, egg and milk etc are very crucial to man. This is because of the ability of these products to furnish excellent balance of essential amino acids necessary for normal growth and development. The proteins of animal origin are good sources of lysine and sulphur amino acids, which are low in proteins of plant origin (Omole, 1991). The demand for animal protein in the tropics, for example, Nigeria has been on the increase because of the rise in human population within the region. Intake of animal protein at present is 4.82g/head/day (Tewe, 1999) as against a minimum required 35g recommended by Food and Agricultural Organization (F.A.O.) (Tewe, 1999). In Europe the actual average consumptions is put at 45g/head/day and in North America it is 70g/head/day (Tewe, 1999). The task facing any animal scientist in Nigeria is to increase the production of livestock products to make animal products available to our people especially the rural populace. Maynard and Loosli (2002), noted that it is important to recognize that ruminants increase the supply of food for humans by consuming materials that otherwise could contribute little or nothing to feeding people. These include forages from rangelands, plant by-products and crop residues from which humans are unable to derive any useful energy. Nutrition is by far the most important environmental factor affecting livestock production and feed cost represents 75% or more of the total cost of animal production (Cordiez et al., 2001). Good nutrition is required if healthy animals are to give maximum yield of meat and milk. Well nourished animals are better able to withstand the incidence of diseases which may claim up to 50% of the flock (Devandra, 2003). Nutrition plays a major role in the overall production, health and wellbeing of sheep flock in particular and animals in general. This implies that sheep producers should consider nutrition management a top priority. According to Stevens (2009), nutrient requirement of sheep varies with difference in age, body weight and stage of production. Insufficient energy limits the performance of sheep probably more than other nutritional deficiencies. An energy deficiency may result from inadequate amount of feed or from feeds (generally forages) that do not contain enough protein to “unlock” the energy in the feedstuff. In sheep rations, the amount of protein is more important than quality of protein. Sheep are 26% more efficient than cattle in converting pastures and forages into marketable products (Outhouse et al., 2010). Thus, sheep becomes more attractive economically as grain production cost rises. Forages supply approximately 80% of the yearly nutrient requirement of sheep. During the grazing season sheep are able to meet other nutrient requirement from pasture, salt and mineral supplement. Practically, all tropical sheep are maintained on unimproved grazing. They are grazed extensively often together with cattle and/or goats and in some more arid areas they are sometimes grazed together with camels. Occasionally, they are tethered on the roadside or managed indoors and fed cut forage. The sheep grazes the pasture herbage down to the soil level aided by its split upper lip. Its daily capacity for food intake in relation to its size is smaller than that of goats and cattle. So it is more selective in its grazing habits. Sheep generally avoid coarser vegetation but exercise some control over established shrubs by nipping out the softer growing points.

Project detailsContents
 
Number of Pages95 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
ReferenceReference
QuestionnaireQuestionnaire
AppendixAppendix
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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