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Background to the Study 
 The management of urban solid waste constitutes one of the most immediate and serious environmental problems facing governments in African cities. The conventional municipal solid waste management approach, based on collection, storage, transportation and disposal seem to have failed to provide efficient and effective services to all urban residents. Consequently, the urban environment steadily degrades due to solid waste, which is not managed efficiently. For example, Rovacs (1985) and Azu (1985) characterized Lagos, Nigeria as the “dirtiest” capital in the World. According to them most parts of the city and streets are partially or wholly blocked by solid waste. This was observed about 20 years ago. The situation may have improved. Similarly, open spaces and market places are littered with solid waste. Joseph, (2006) stated that in most cases drains are clogged or t otally blocked and many compounds are hemmed in by solid wastes. This deplorable situation is not only unique to Lagos, but exists in most African cities. He further lamented that in Accra, Ghana, only 11 per cent of the 1.4 million residents benefit from home collection while the remaining 89 per cent dispose of their solid waste at community dumps, in open spaces, in water bodies, and in storm drainage channels. The situation in other African cities is not much different. Azu (1985) observed that on the average, city authorities in Tanzania collect only 24 per cent of the solid waste. Alaribe (1984), Petts (1994) and Ogu (2000) pointed out that household waste collection and street cleaning are restricted to wealthy neighbourhoods, while in the remaining areas household wastes are dumped along roads, in illegal dumps and in storm water drains or is buried. In Nigeria, Oniobokun (1989) indicated that 35 per cent of Ibadan’s households, 33 percent of Kaduna’s, and 44 per cent of Enugu State do not have access to waste collection. When solid waste is not collected, unsanitary conditions develop and pose environmental and human health risks. The prevalence of parasites, tetanus, malaria, hookworm, cholera and diarrhoea in most African cities is attributed to the unsanitary conditions in these cities (Jackson, Morris, Smith & Grawfond, 1990). Alaribe (1984) and Osinowo (2001) revealed that malaria, diarrhoea, intestinal worms and upper respiratory tract infections were among the most common health problems reported at out-patient health facilities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. In the city of Accra, the major health problem is disease attributed to poor environmental sanitation, which is exacerbated by ignorance and poverty (Petts, 1994). In Tanzania, Ogu (2000) and Osinowo (2001) reported that poor sanitation and improper waste disposal practices result in the spread of infectious diseases, which are the most frequent cases of morbidity and mortality.

Project detailsContents
Number of Pages112 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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