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 Background to the Study
 Neonatal period comprises the first 28days of life. During this period, newborns are non verbal very vulnerable, and unable to actively participate in the patient identification process which increases the likelihood of neonatal morbidity and mortality.(National Association of Neonatal Nurses (NANN), 2014). Globally neonatal mortality rate fell by 40% between 1990 and 2013- from 33 to 20 deaths per 1,000 live births. Over the same period the number of newborn babies who died within the first 28days of life declined from 4.7million to 2.8million. (United Nations Children’s Fund,(UNICEF),2014), About half of under-five deaths occur in only five countries: China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, India, Nigeria and Pakistan. India (21%) and Nigeria (13%) together account for more than a third of all under-five deaths. Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest neonatal mortality rate (32 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2012) and accounts for 38 percent of global neonatal deaths. World Health Organization, (WHO), (2014), stated that children in Sub-Saharan Africa are over than 15 times more likely to die before the age of five than children in developed regions. Sub-Saharan Africa is among the regions showing the least progress in reducing the neonatal mortality rate. About 5.9 million babies are born in Nigeria every year, and nearly one million children die before the age of five years. One quarter of all under-five deaths are newborn: 241,000 babies each year, (Federal Ministry of Health, 2011). About 5.9 million babies are born in Nigeria every year, and nearly one million children die before the age of five years, (WHO, in Toqan & Iman 2011). Federal Ministry of Health (2011) states that Nigeria has achieved only an average of 1.2% reduction in under-five mortality since 1990 some effort has been made to reduce deaths after the first month of life (the neonatal period) although, there has been no measurable progress in reducing neonatal deaths over the past decade. The questions or challenges are: how can these deaths be reduced? , what can be done towards achieving this? And who are directly involved? When can this be? Which health professionals are directly involved toward reducing the number of deaths of newborn in Nigeria? Prevention is the key to reducing these deaths. It starts with having stipulated standards which are built into a System or Institution in form of structure, process or outcome standards. If measures are put in place and standards are set and adhered to, a lot can be achieved. Maintaining and improving patient care requires active involvement of everyone in health care system, in other to meet the needs of evaluating health care in its totality as well as to identify whether effective and appropriate care has been provided. Standard is the major component of neonatal health care and it demands participation from nurses rendering care. According to Jemilugba (2011), standards are the yardsticks of measuring and evaluating the quality of education and performance of the practitioners in the health care delivery system. They are derived from core values which include respect for dignity of persons, integrity in service, compassion, tolerance, intellectual and psychomotor competencies and accountability. There is need for measuring the degree of skill, with which technique or procedure was carried out, the degree of client participation or the nature of interaction between nurse and client as a means of ensuring that good quality care is rendered. This is of upmost importance especially in neonatal units, considering the vulnerable nature of neonatal patients. For instance NANN (2014) noted that errors in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are common, especially medication error, ranging from 13 to 91 medication errors per 100 NICU admissions, and to experience more harm when a medication error does occur. American Nurses Association (ANA), identified a number of other standards, including ethics, education, evidence-based practice and research, quality of practice, communication, leadership, collaboration, professional practice evaluation, resource utilization, and environmental health. All of these standards help to define what professional nursing is, and these are the standards to which the nurse is held accountable, (Witt, 2011).

Project detailsContents
Number of Pages86 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
Available documentPDF and MS-word format


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