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 Background to the Study
 Female genital mutilation (FGM) commonly known as female circumcision comprises all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia either for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons (Wright, 2006). Whatever the purpose, FGM is a dangerous and potentially life-threatening procedure that causes unspeakable pain and suffering to the victim. According to Black (2000), it is declining in many western worlds but it is still being practiced in many African countries. It continues to be one of the most persistent, pervasive and silently endured human rights violations in the developing world. An estimated 140 million females in the world today have undergone some form of female mutilation. At the current rates of population increase and with the slow decline in these procedures, it is estimated that each year a further 2 million girls are at risk from the practice, and the women and girls affected live in 28 African countries and a few in the Middle East and Asia (World Health Organization (WHO), 2002). Recently, it has been identified as a very vital public health problem (Uwasomba, 2003). Referring to female genital mutilation as female circumcision is misleading because it implies that the procedure is similar to male circumcision, which is necessary and simply involves the removal of piece of the foreskin of the genital organ (WHO, 2004). The procedure is far more invasive and dangerous as a large portion of healthy sensitive tissues of the female external genital organs are normally excised. In Africa, the practice exists today in about thirty two out of the forty eight African countries among them are Sudan, Egypt, Mali, Niger, Nigeria to mention but a few (Bashir, 1997). In Nigeria, female genital mutilation is noted to be practiced among different tribes, for example the Igbos, Efiks, Ishans, Edo’s, Urhobos, Yorubas, Nupes, Hausas, Idomas and many others (Bardie, 1995). There are 3 main types of female genital mutilation although some other forms have been identified. They are: Type 1 (Clitoridectomy), Type 2 (Excision) and Type 3 (Infibulations). Clitoridectomy involves removal of the tip of the prepuce, with or without excision of part or all of the clitoris, Excision involves removal of the clitoris along with some part or all of the labia minora while in infibulations most of all the external genitalia is removed, and the vaginal opening is then stitched leaving only a small opening for the flow of urine and menstruation. The procedure can be carried out during infancy, about the eight day of delivery, childhood, at time of marriage or even during first pregnancy depending on the cultural dictates of the area. The operation is often performed by practitioners with little or no formal knowledge of human anatomy and physiology and in most cases under unhygienic conditions without the use of anaesthetic or sterile instruments. The immediate medical consequences according to Black (2000), include, difficulty in passing urine, urine retention, haemorrhage, infection, fever, stress, shock and damage to the genital organs. Over time, circumcised women may also develop menstrual complications, urinary tract infections, chronic pelvic infection and low fertility or infertility. With all these medical complications prevalent among the circumcised female, the obnoxious practice is still common especially in some rural areas in most developing countries like Nigeria. A lot of campaigns by government and non-governmental organizations highlighting the risks associated with FGM have been mounted, yet the practice is still prevalent in some rural settings in Nigeria (Jerry, 2000). This raises the question, “what could be the factors that are still preserving the continuing practice of FGM?”

Project detailsContents
Number of Pages84 pages
Chapter one Introduction
Chapter two Literature review
Chapter three  methodology
Chapter  four  Data analysis
Chapter  five Summary,discussion & recommendations
Chapter summary1 to 5 chapters
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